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2020 CASES & PRINCIPLES

ENGR. CHINEDUM O. ANYA v. BARR. ONWUCHEKWA

FEMI AYOADE v. STATE

HAJIA YINUSA BAKARI v. DEACONESS (MRS) FELICIA ARINOLA OGUNDIPE OGUNDIPE & ORS

ISSA BIO v. THE STATE

CIL RISK & ASSET MANAGEMENT LTD v. EKITI STATE GOVT. & ORS

EFCC v. WOLFGANG REINL

FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC v. CHIEF ISAAC OSARO & ORS

NWEKE CHIBUEZE FRANCIS v. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA

BULUS GOLIT v. INSPECTOR GENERAL OF POLICE

SGT. STEPHEN IDAHOSA v. CHRISTOPHER IDAHOSA

THEOPHILUS KURE v. COMMISSIONER OF POLICE

EYONG IDAM v. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA

FRANCIS IKENE ITOK v. OBONG FRIDAY THOMPSON UDOYO

ISMAILA KIWO v. THE STATE

ATTO MABA v. THE STATE

BEMDOO MINDI v. THE STATE

MARIAM MOHAMMED v. ATTORNEY GENERAL OF THE FEDERATION

ABU MOHAMMED v. THE STATE

UMAR MOHAMMED NASKO & ANOR v. ABUBAKAR SANI BELLO & ORS

NATIONAL INLAND WATERWAYS AUTHORITY v. THE SHELL PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT COMPANY OF NIGERIA LIMITED

LUCKY OBASI v. THE STATE

OSAHON NATHANIEL OBAYUWANA & ORS V. CHIEF JOHN OSAMEDE ADUN

BONIFACE EBERE OKEZIE & ORS v. CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA & ORS

MURITALA OLADAPO v. THE STATE

CAPT. JACKSON FRIDAY OLALI v. NIGERIAN ARMY

SURAJU OLANREWAJU v. THE STATE

TAOHEED LAMIDI OLAYODE v. THE STATE

ONYEMUCHE ONUKWUBE v. THE STATE

JUDE ONWUZULIKE v. THE STATE

OTERI HOLDINGS LTD v. CHIEF MUKAILA KOLAWOLE OLUWA & ORS

PEOPLES DEMOCRATIC PARTY (PDP) & ORS v. BIOBARAKUMA DEGI-EREMIENYO & ORS

SAMUEL POSU v. THE STATE

NAFI’U SAMAILA v. THE STATE

ALHAJI ABBA MOHAMMED SANI v. THE PRESIDENT FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA

YUSUF SANI v. THE STATE

SKYMIT MOTORS LIMITED v. UNITED BANK OF AFRICA PLC

THE SHELL PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT COMPANY OF NIGERIA LIMITED & ORS v. CHIEF ISAAC OSARO AGBARA & ORS

THE STATE v. ALI AHMED

TONIMAS NIGERIA LIMITED v. NZE BERNARD CHIGBU

U.O.O. NIGERIA PLC & ORS v. MR. MARIBE OKAFOR & ORS

CHIJIOKE UGWU v. THE STATE

MUSA UMAR v. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA & ORS

PIUS UMEADI & ORS v. VICTOR CHIBUNZE & ORS

SENATOR HOPE UZODINMA & ANOR v. RT. HON. EMEKA IHEDIOHA & ORS

WARRI REFINING & PETROCHEMICAL CO LTD v. GECMEP NIGERIA LIMITED

YOUNG SHALL GROW MOTORS LIMITED v. MADAM NIMOTA ONALADA & ORS


ACTION – STATUTE BARRED ACTION – Effect of a statute barred action on the jurisdiction of Court

CASE LAW – JUDICIAL PRECEDENT/STARE DECISIS – Whether cases are only authorities for what they decided; whether an obiter of the Supreme Court is binding on lower courts and instance where same will become binding

LIMITATION LAW – STATUTE OF LIMITATION – Whether leasehold is a matter in the domain of customary law such that same is exempted from the application of a statute of limitation; effect of an action filed outside a period envisaged under a statute of limitation

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION LAW – Nature, purport/essence of Limitation Law

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Effect of the success of a preliminary objection to the hearing of an appeal

ACTION – STATUTE BARRED ACTION – Instance where an action is statute barred

ACTION – STATUTE BARRED ACTION – When is an action statute barred; effect of a statute barred action

APPEAL – APPEALABLE/UNAPPEALABLE DECISION – Whether an obiter qualifies as an appealable decision

ELECTORAL MATTERS – QUALIFICATION/DISQUALIFICATION – Instance(s) in which the information given by a candidate in an affidavit document and/or Form CF001 will be held to be false; effect of same

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – ISSUE(S) FOR DETERMINATION – Whether an appellant can argue issue(s) not subsumed in the ground(s) of appeal

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential elements of the offence of murder; instance(s) in which it will be held to have been proved beyond reasonable doubt

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS – Ingredients of the offences of procurement of any person for prostitution, pornography and foreign travels which promote prostitution

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients of the offence of armed robbery; standard of proof required of the prosecution

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Meaning of armed robbery

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Duty of the trial court to assess credibility of witnesses

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – The position of the law on a retracted statement

EVIDENCE – BEST EVIDENCE – What is the best evidence in criminal proceedings; Duty of Court thereto

EVIDENCE – EVIDENCE OF A SINGLE WITNESS – Whether a court can convict on the evidence of a single witness

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether the retraction of a voluntary confessional statement renders it inadmissible; effect when a confession is satisfactorily proved

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Proper procedure to be adopted by a trial Court where an accused person denies making a confessional statement

ACTION – CONSISTENCY IN PRESENTATION OF A CASE – Whether a party is permitted to approbate and reprobate at the same time

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – NULL AND VOID JUDGMENT/ORDER – Effect of a null and void judgment/proceeding; whether an appeal is necessary for the purpose of setting aside a null order

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ISSUE OF JURISDICTION – Importance of resolving the issue of jurisdiction once it is raised

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Purpose and effect of a preliminary objection; need for Courts to determine same first

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ACADEMIC OR HYPOTHETICAL QUESTION(S)/ISSUES/SUIT/EXERCISE – Attitude of Courts to academic/hypothetical issues or questions

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – Instance(s) when abuse of Court process will arise

CASE LAW – JUDICIAL PRECEDENT/STARE DECISIS – Doctrine of stare decisis; whether the granting of leave to appeal is not sufficient to cure the defect in a notice of appeal that had earlier been filed without leave having regard to the decision of the Supreme Court in Williams v. Mokwe

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – Instance of an abuse of court process and the effect of same

ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – Instance of an abuse of court process and the effect of same

APPEAL – LEAVE OF COURT/LEAVE TO APPEAL – Whether the granting of leave to appeal is not sufficient to cure the defect in a notice of appeal that had earlier been filed without leave having regard to the decision of the Supreme Court in Williams v. Mokwe

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – BREACH OF RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Whether an accused person who willfully absented himself from his trial thereby causing a delay in same can complain that his right to fair hearing has been breached

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Right of a person to a fair hearing in public within a reasonable time by a Court or Tribunal and when a person will be held to have waived same

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CHARGE(S) – Guiding principles in considering an application to quash a charge

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CRIMINAL TRIAL/PROCEEDINGS – Whether an accused person who contributed to the delay in his trial can apply for an order quashing/dismissing all the charges against him and discharging him because of the long delay in his trial

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – DELAY – Whether a party can be allowed to benefit from the delay he caused

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – DELAY – Whether a party can be allowed to benefit from the delay he caused

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – How to determine whether a ground of appeal is one of law, facts or mixed law and facts; effect of failure to obtain leave to file grounds of mixed law and fact

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether leave of court is required to file an appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact and effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether leave of court is required to file an appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact and effect of failure thereof

ACTION – ORIGINATING SUMMON(S) – Instance where a court will be held to have been wrong for striking out the originating summons of a party for not containing questions for determination

ACTION – ORIGINATING SUMMON(S) – Instance where a court will be held to have been wrong for striking out the originating summons of a party for not containing questions for determination

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Duty of the Court to do substantial justice

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder

EVIDENCE – DOCTRINE OF LAST SEEN – Application of the doctrine of last seen; and duty on accused to give an explanation as to the death of a deceased where he is the last person seen with same

EVIDENCE – DOCTRINE OF LAST SEEN – What the doctrine of last seen entails; instances when the doctrine will be applicable

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Instance(s) in which it will be safe to convict an accused based on his confessional statement

EVIDENCE – MEDICAL EVIDENCE – Whether it is mandatory for the maker of a medical report to be present in Court to give evidence for the report to be admissible

COURT – RECORD(S) OF COURT – Whether the Court is entitled to look at its file or record and make use of the contents

EVIDENCE – DOCTRINE OF LAST SEEN – Application and validity of the doctrine of last seen

EVIDENCE – MEDICAL EVIDENCE – Whether it is mandatory for the maker of a medical report to be present in Court to give evidence for the report to be admissible

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect oa notice of appeal filed out of time

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of a notice of appeal filed out of time

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of a notice of appeal filed out of time

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of a notice of appeal filed out of time

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – ARRAIGNMENT/TAKING OF PLEA – Requirements for a valid arraignment

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – PROVISION OF AN INTERPRETER – Whether the right of an accused to an interpreter can be invoked on appeal by an appellant who had been represented by counsel at the trial as a ground for setting aside a conviction

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – PROVISION OF AN INTERPRETER – Whether failure to record the presence of an interpreter on subsequent trial dates would be sufficient to vitiate a trial

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Circumstances where an identification parade will not be necessary

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict on a retracted confessional statement; conditions that must be satisfied before same can be done

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict solely on the confessional statement of an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONVICTION FOR LESSER OFFENCE  – Position of the law as regards conviction for lesser offence; whether an accused can rightly be convicted for receiving goods which are proceeds of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONVICTION FOR LESSER OFFENCE – Position of the law as regards conviction for lesser offence; whether an accused can rightly be convicted for receiving goods which are proceeds of armed robbery

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Time within which to file notice of appeal in criminal matters and effect of a notice of appeal filed out of time

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Time within which to file notice of appeal in criminal matters and effect of a notice of appeal filed out of time

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of a notice of appeal filed out of time:

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Whether a purported amended notice of appeal can validly amend a fundamentally defective original notice of appeal

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Whether appeals succeed against concurrent findings where the findings are found to be perverse; what amounts to perverse findings

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Whether the weapon used to carry out armed robbery must be tendered by the prosecution to secure a conviction

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – When identification parade will/will not be necessary

EVIDENCE – IDENTIFICATION EVIDENCE – Meaning of identification and whether there can be sufficient identification of a person by his voice

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a confessional statement is the best proof of commission of an offence and whether an accused person can be convicted solely on it; whether non-observance of the judges rules affects the admissibility of a confessional statement

APPEAL – FORMULATION OF ISSUE(S) FOR DETERMINATION – Whether issues for determination of an appeal can be formulated from a preliminary objection

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – How to determine whether a ground of appeal is one of law, facts or mixed law and facts; effect of failure to obtain leave to file grounds of mixed law and fact

ACTION – STATUTE BARRED ACTION – Instance where an action is statute barred

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – SENTENCING – Whether a Court has discretion or power to alter a mandatory sentence imposed by law

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – SENTENCING – Whether the Court has the discretion to alter a mandatory statutory term of imprisonment

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proof in criminal cases; what does proof beyond reasonable doubt mean

EVIDENCE – CONTRADICTION IN EVIDENCE – Nature of a contradictory statement/evidence

EVIDENCE – HEARSAY EVIDENCE – Meaning of hearsay evidence; what constitutes hearsay evidence

EVIDENCE – CALLING OF WITNESS(ES) – Whether the prosecution is required to call every available eye or particular witnesses to secure a conviction

EVIDENCE – CALLING OF WITNESSES – Whether an accused person has the right to dictate to the prosecution the witnesses to call or not to call

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Principles of fair hearing; whether a party who had an opportunity of being heard but did not utilize it can bring an action for breach of fair hearing

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Whether a party who had an opportunity of being heard but did not utilize it can bring an action for breach of fair hearing

WILLS AND PROBATE – VALIDITY OF A WILL – Requirements of the Law as regards the validity/genuineness of a will and the proof of same

COURT – RAISING ISSUE(S) SUO MOTU – Whether a Court can raise an issue suo motu and determine it without hearing parties; distinction between raising an issue suo motu and looking into the case/file by the Court to determine a matter:

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION PERIOD – Limitation period on action founded on contract; effect of bringing an action outside the limitation period

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION PERIOD – Limitation period on action founded on contract; effect of bringing an action outside the limitation period

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION PERIOD – Limitation period on action founded on contract; effect of bringing an action outside the limitation period

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE STATE/FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Scope of the jurisdiction of the State and Federal High Courts with respect to enforcement of fundamental rights

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE SUPREME COURT – Whether the Supreme Court has jurisdiction to hear appeals directly from decisions of the High Court

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT (ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURE) RULES – Instance where the incorporation of the facts contained in an affidavit in support of an originating motion as grounds for the relief sought will be held to have complied with the provisions of the Fundamental Rights Enforcement Procedure Rules

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts:

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE STATE HIGH COURT  – Jurisdiction of the High Court with respect to land

COURT – JURISDICTION – What determines jurisdiction of Court to entertain a cause/matter

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Whether a case or an issue that was not raised in the lower court can be raised in the Appeal Court

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Duty of Court in rendering its decision over a particular dispute; whether a Court is a Court of both law and facts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where an appellate Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/ONUS OF PROOF  – Position of the law as regards burden of proof where a plaintiff pleads possession of land in dispute and the defendant admits same but adds that the land was given to the plaintiff as a pledge

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/ONUS OF PROOF  – Burden of proof in civil cases; Types of burden of proof in civil cases and whether same shifts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH FINDING(S) OF FACT(S)  – Whether an appellate court can interfere with findings of fact based on credibility of witnesses

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/ONUS OF PROOF – Effect of failure to discharge the burden of proof placed on a party

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – TECHNICALITIES – Attitude of court to technicalities

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/ONUS OF PROOF – Burden of proof on a claimant claiming ownership of land by gift; effect of failure to discharge same (Copy N28)

ACTION – CLAIM(S)/RELIEF(S)  – Position of the law where there is a claim that falls within the jurisdiction of two Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – NATURE OF APPEAL – Nature of an appeal

APPEAL – EXTENSION/ENLARGEMENT OF TIME TO APPEAL – Principles guiding the grant of an application for extension of time within which to appeal

PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Duty of Court not to determine a substantive issue while determining a preliminary objection

JURISDICTION – Attitude/Approach of Court where the issue of jurisdiction is raised in an appeal filed out of time

PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Duty of Court not to determine a substantive issue while determining a preliminary objection

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ADJOURNMENT – Whether the grant or refusal of an application for adjournment is at the discretion of Court and how such discretion should be exercised

JUDGMENT OF COURT – When can a judgment/decision said to be judicious

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – APPLICATION FOR ADJOURNMENT – Effect of an application for adjournment that has no backing of law

LEGAL PRACTITIONER – LEGAL REPRESENTATION – Whether a lawyer is permitted to act as counsel and witness for his client at the same time

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – ALLOCUTUS – Meaning of allocutus

APPEAL – FILING/ENTRY OF APPEAL – Statutory time prescribed for appealing in a criminal matter and effect of breach of same

APPEAL – LEAVE OF COURT/LEAVE TO APPEAL – Effect of failure to obtain leave of court where same is required

COURT – DISCRETION OF COURT – When will discretion of Court be said to have been exercised judicially and judiciously

APPEAL – FILING/ENTRY OF APPEAL – Statutory period for filing an appeal in a criminal cause or matter; effect of filing such appeal out of time and without leave of Court

APPEAL – FILING/ENTRY OF APPEAL – Statutory period for filing an appeal in a criminal cause or matter; effect of filing such appeal out of time and without leave of Court

APPEAL – FILING/ENTRY OF APPEAL – Statutory period for filing an appeal in a criminal cause or matter; effect of filing such appeal out of time and without leave of Court

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Duty of Court to be consistent in its findings

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONVICTION AND SENTENCE – Duty of Court before convicting an accused person; instance where conviction and sentence of an accused person will be set aside

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CONSPIRACY – Whether a person can be convicted of conspiracy if the others are discharged and acquitted

JURISDICTION – TERRITORIAL JURISDICTION – What territorial jurisdiction implies and how same is conferred

JURISDICTION – TERRITORIAL JURISDICTION – When will a Court have territorial jurisdiction to hear and determine a case

FAMILY LAW – PATERNITY OF A CHILD  – Position of the law with respect to proof of paternity of a child and dislodging the presumption of law with respect to the paternity of a child

EVIDENCE – PRESUMPTION OF LAW – Presumption of law that any person born during the continuance of a valid marriage shall be presumed to be a child of that man; burden and standard of proof required to dislodge same

EVIDENCE – DYING DECLARATION – Meaning of a dying declaration and instance where the rule applicable to dying declaration will be inapplicable

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONVICTION  – Whether a person can be convicted for both offences of criminal breach of trust and cheating based on the same factual situation in respect of one transaction in the same proceedings:

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

POLICE – DUTY OF POLICE – Duty/Role of the police where the remedy of a nominal complainant is in a civil suit for damages for breach of contract or for an order for specific performance

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

POLICE – DUTY OF POLICE – Whether the duty of the police includes the settlement of civil dispute or debt collection

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

APPEAL TO THE SUPREME COURT – Whether the Supreme Court can entertain an appeal directly from the decision of the High Court

OFFENCE OF RAPE  – Statutory provision prescribing the ingredients and punishment for the offence of rape

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF RAPE – When would the offence of rape be said to have been committed

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CRIMINAL FORCE AND ASSAULT – What amounts to the offence of criminal force

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – SENTENCING – Circumstances under which an appellate Court will not interfere with the sentence imposed by the lower Court

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – SENTENCING  – Circumstances under which an appellate Court will not interfere with the sentence imposed by the lower Court

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of a ground of appeal from which no issue for determination is formulated

APPEAL – APPEAL AS OF RIGHT – Instances/cases where an appeal will lie as of right

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether leave of court is required to file and argue a ground of law

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Whether leave of Court must first be sought and obtained before fresh point can be raised on appeal; effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

EVIDENCE – PRESUMPTION OF CORRECTNESS – Whether the records of courts are presumed to be correct until they are successfully impugned

EVIDENCE – CORROBORATION/CORROBORATIVE EVIDENCE – Nature of corroborative evidence required to prove the commission of a crime

EVIDENCE – COMPETENCE OF A CHILD – When a court will be held to have rightly admitted and utilized the sworn evidence of a child

EVIDENCE – CORROBORATION/CORROBORATIVE EVIDENCE – Purpose of corroboration

EVIDENCE – TAINTED WITNESS – Whether the fact that a witness is a blood relation of the victim of a crime makes the witness a tainted witness

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Circumstances where an identification parade will not be necessary

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – PERVERSE DECISION – Effect of failure of a party to prove that the concurrent findings of the lower Courts are perverse

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Whether leave of Court must first be sought and obtained before fresh point can be raised on appeal; effect of failure thereof

EVIDENCE – ADMISSIBILITY OF EVIDENCE – Appropriate time to object to the admissibility of evidence, effect of failure to do so:

EVIDENCE – IDENTIFICATION EVIDENCE – When identification evidence can be used to sustain a conviction

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Whether leave of Court must first be sought and obtained before fresh point can be raised on appeal and the exception(s) thereof

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – WAIVER OF RIGHT – When a party is deemed to have waived his right

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Instance(s) where an application for leave to raise fresh points on appeal will be refused

BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proof in criminal cases; what does proof beyond reasonable doubt mean:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

EVIDENCE – IDENTIFICATION EVIDENCE – Position of the law on identification evidence

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – When identification parade will/will not be necessary:

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Meaning of Confession under the Evidence Act; whether an accused can be convicted on his confession alone:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Circumstances where an identification parade will not be necessary:

EVIDENCE – CALLING OF WITNESS(ES) – Whether the prosecution is required to call a specific number of witnesses to secure a conviction

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Position of the law as regards identification parade

APPEAL – CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Whether an appellate Court will allow a question of fact to be reopened where there are concurrent findings on same:

LEGAL PRACTITIONER – CONDUCT OF COUNSEL – Duty of counsel not to conduct himself in a manner that may obstruct delay or adversely affect the administration of justice

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery; effect of failure to prove any the ingredients of the offence charged

EVIDENCE – IDENTIFICATION EVIDENCE – Circumstance under which the Court will accept and act on a visual identification

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Circumstances where an identification parade will not be necessary

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

EVIDENCE – PRESUMPTION OF REGULARITY – Whether there is a presumption of regularity in favour of judicial acts; how to rebut such presumption:

LEGAL PRACTITIONER – DUTY OF COUNSEL – Duty of Counsel as a minister in the temple of justice and an officer of the Court

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – JUDGMENT OF COURT – Whether a judgment/order of court remains valid until set aside

EVIDENCE – PROOF BEYOND REASONABLE DOUBT – The requirement of the law as regard proof beyond reasonable doubt

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

EVIDENCE – EVIDENCE OF A SINGLE WITNESS – Whether a court can convict on the evidence of a single witness

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Onus on an appellant appealing against concurrent findings of Lower Courts

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – GUILT OF AN ACCUSED PERSON – How to establish/prove the guilt of an accused person

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a confessional statement becomes inadmissible because an accused person retracted or denied making it

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients required to be proved by the prosecution to establish the offence of conspiracy to commit armed robbery and armed robbery

EVIDENCE – PROOF BEYOND REASONABLE DOUBT – Meaning/nature of proof beyond reasonable doubt

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CONSPIRACY – How the offence of conspiracy can be inferred

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – What constitutes a competent ground of appeal; instance where a ground of appeal and issues for determination will be held not to constitute a complaint against the decision of a Court

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict on a retracted confessional statement