ACTION

ACTION – Cause of Action – Meaning of cause of action

ACTION – Commencement of action – Originating Summons Procedure – When Originating Summons can be used in commencing an action

ACTION – COMMENCEMENT OF ACTION – When a suit can be held to have been properly commenced

ACTION – Commencement of action – Whether every dispute of facts must be commenced by writ of summons – Need for the disputes of facts to be substantial

ACTION – Defences to an action – Whether leave is required to raise multiple defences to an action

ACTION – JUDGMENT AND ORDERS – Claim – Duty of the Court to enter judgment when a claim is successfully proved to the satisfaction of court

ACTION – JUDGMENT AND ORDERS – Claim – How claim for compensation for injurious can be determined

ACTION – JUDGMENT AND ORDERS – Non-Suit – Need for the Court to hear both parties before entering an order for non-suit

ACTION – JUDGMENT AND ORDERS: Non-Suit – Meaning, History and Nature of non-suit

ACTION – Pre-action Notice – Particulars to be included therein – Whether failure to supply or contain the plaintiff’s address sufficient to render the notice null and void: 

ACTION – Pre-action Notice – When made a condition precedent – The purpose of – Whether particulars to be included therein are mandatory – Effect of non-compliance with the form:

ACTION – CIVIL ACTION – Attitude of Court to the use of criminal law machinery for getting reliefs in civil disputes

ACTION – CLAIM(S)/RELIEF(S)  – Position of the law where there is a claim that falls within the jurisdiction of two Courts

ACTION – CLAIM(S)/RELIEF(S)- Whether parties and Court are bound by the reliefs claimed; duty of Court not to grant reliefs not claimed

ACTION – CONDITION PRECEDENT – Importance of fulfilling condition(s) precedent to the assumption of jurisdiction by Court

ACTION – CONDITION PRECEDENT – Importance of fulfilling condition(s) precedent to the assumption of jurisdiction by Court

ACTION – CONSISTENCY IN PRESENTATION OF A CASE – Whether a party is permitted to approbate and reprobate at the same time

ACTION – DECLARATION OF RIGHT – Whether Court can make a declaration of right whether or not any consequential relief is claimed

ACTION – DECLARATORY RELIEF(S) – Nature of a declaratory relief; whether a declaratory relief can be granted for wrongful dismissal in a master/servant relationship

ACTION – DECLARATORY RELIEF(S) – What a party who seeks a declaratory relief must show:

ACTION – JOINING OF ISSUES – When can it be said that issues have been joined; whether the Court and parties are bound by the issues joined

ACTION – LOCUS STANDI – Effect of absence of locus standi

ACTION – LOCUS STANDI – Importance of the issue of locus standi to the jurisdiction of a court

ACTION – LOCUS STANDI – Position of law on locus standi

ACTION – LOCUS STANDI – Position of law on locus standi

ACTION – LOCUS STANDI – Principles of law as regards locus standi and when a party will be held to have the locus standi to institute an action

ACTION – LOCUS STANDI – What a party must show to establish locus standi

ACTION – LOCUS STANDI – What a party must show to establish locus standi

ACTION – LOCUS STANDI – Whether a member of a voluntary organization can sue the organization regarding whether its decisions or actions on its internal affairs are ultra vires

ACTION – NECESSARY PARTY(IES) – Who is a necessary party

ACTION – NON-JOINDER OF PARTY(IES) – Exception to the rule that non-joinder of a necessary party to an action may not vitiate such action

ACTION – ORIGINATING PROCESS(ES) – Effect of a challenge to the validity of an originating process on the jurisdiction of the Court

ACTION – ORIGINATING PROCESS(ES) – Effect of an incompetent originating process

ACTION – ORIGINATING SUMMON(S) – Instance where a court will be held to have been wrong for striking out the originating summons of a party for not containing questions for determination

ACTION – ORIGINATING SUMMON(S) – Instance where a court will be held to have been wrong for striking out the originating summons of a party for not containing questions for determination

ACTION – ORIGINATING SUMMON(S) – Whether Order 3 Rule 8 of the Rivers State High Court (Civil Procedure) Rules, 2010 mandates an applicant to file a verifying affidavit alongside an originating summons

ACTION – PARTY(IES) TO AN ACTION – Who is a mandatory party and effect of failure to join a mandatory party in an action:

ACTION – PLEADINGS – Effect of failure to call evidence in support of pleadings

ACTION – PLEADINGS – Essence of pleadings

ACTION – PROPER PARTIES – Whether proper parties must be before the Court for an action to succeed; how to determine whether a party is a proper party

ACTION – PROPER PARTIES – Whether proper parties must be before the Court for it to be competent to adjudicate on a matter:

ACTION – STATUTE BARRED ACTION – Effect of a statute barred action on the jurisdiction of Court

ACTION – STATUTE BARRED ACTION – Instance where an action is statute barred

ACTION – STATUTE BARRED ACTION – When is an action statute barred; effect of a statute barred action

ACTION – STATUTE BARRED ACTION – How to determine whether an action is statute barred

ACTION – STATUTE BARRED ACTION – Instance where an action is statute barred

ACTION – STATUTE BARRED ACTION – Meaning, nature and purpose of statute bar; effect where an action is statute barred

ACTION/JUDGMENT AND ORDERS – Order for Non-suit – Discretionary powers of court to Non-suit – Need for the discretion to be exercised judicially

ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATE

ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATE – WILL – Testamentary gift – Renunciation of a will – Whether the Beneficiary is bound to give reasons for renunciation – Rules governing sharing of renounced testamentary gift

ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATE, CUSTOMARY LAW – Intestate succession – The applicable law to Intestate succession – Whether the law applicable in the deceased’s place of abode or ancestral home

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW – Certiorari proceedings – Circumstances where the remedy by certiorari proceedings would be granted

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW – ORDER OF MANDAMUS – Meaning and nature of an order of mandamus; condition(s) that must exist before same can be granted

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW – ORDER OF MANDAMUS – Meaning of order of mandamus; what an applicant must show before the court will make an order of mandamus

ADMIRALTY

ADMIRALTY – Nature of An action in rem in Admiralty

APPEAL

APPEAL – Abandoned ground of appeal – Whether a respondent can formulate issue from an abandoned ground of appeal

APPEAL – Appeal against Cost – Whether leave of court is required to file an appeal against cost

APPEAL – CONCURRENT FINDINGS – Attitude of the Supreme Court to concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) by Lower Courts

APPEAL – Concurrent findings – Circumstances under which an appellate court will interfere with the concurrent findings of facts by lower Courts

APPEAL – Concurrent findings – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of facts by the Lower Courts

APPEAL – Concurrent findingsInstances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of facts by Lower Courts

APPEAL – Concurrent FindingsWhether and when an appellate Court may interfere with the concurrent findings of the lower courts

APPEAL – Concurrent findings of factInstances where the Supreme Court may interfere with concurrent findings of fact by the Lower Courts

APPEAL – Concurrent findings of facts – Attitude of the Supreme Court thereto – When the concurrent findings can be interfered with:

APPEAL – Concurrent findings of factsGuiding principles for the review or interference with concurrent findings of facts by an appellate Court

APPEAL – Concurrent findings of factsInstances where the Supreme Court may not interfere with Concurrent findings of facts by Lower Courts

APPEAL – Concurrent findings of facts – When Appellate court may interfere with concurrent findings of facts:

APPEAL – Duty of the appellate court when considering an appeal – Whether appeals should be determined based on the correctness of the decision or the reason for the decision

APPEAL – Exercise of Discretion – Circumstance where an appellate Court will not interfere with the exercise of discretion by a lower Court

APPEAL – EXERCISE OF DISCRETION – Instances where appellate Court will not interfere with the exercise of discretion of lower Court on the grant of interim forfeiture

APPEAL – Findings of facts – Appeal challenging findings of facts – What a party must establish to succeed in an appeal challenging findings of facts

APPEAL – FINDINGS OF FACTS – Instances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of facts by Lower Courts

APPEAL – FINDINGS OF FACTS – When Supreme Court may interfere with concurrent findings of facts by lower courts – When it will not interfere

APPEAL – Findings of facts on interim forfeiture – Instance where an appellate Court will not interfere with the exercise of discretion of the lower Court on the grant of interim forfeiture

APPEAL – Findings of trial Court – When Appellate Court may interfere with findings of trial court

APPEAL – Formulation of issues for determination: 

APPEAL – Fresh Issues – Whether or not the Supreme Court can pronounce on an issue not raised at the Court of Appeal

APPEAL – Grounds of Appeal – Abandoned grounds of appeal – Effect of a ground of appeal from which no issue for determination is formulated

APPEAL – Grounds of appeal – Formulation of valid grounds of appeal:

APPEAL – Grounds of appeal – Whether must be relevant, connect with and relate to the decision appealed against

APPEAL – Grounds of Appeal – Whether must relate to the ratio decidendi of the judgment appealed against

APPEAL – Issue in an appeal – Meaning and purposes of an issue in appeal

APPEAL – Issues for determination – Effect of issues for determination not distilled from or related to grounds of appeal

APPEAL – Issues for determination – Principles guiding formulation of issues for determination in an appeal

APPEAL – Issues for determinationPrinciples guiding formulation of issues for determination in an appeal

APPEAL – Issues for determination – Whether Court can suo motu formulate or re-formulate issues arising from grounds of appeal for determination of an appeal

APPEAL – Issues for determination – Whether must meet certain conditions to be sustained:

APPEAL – ISSUES FOR DETERMINATION: Formulation of issues for determination – Effect of an issue not arising or relating to any ground of appeal

APPEAL – LEAVE – Whether leave of court is required to file an appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact – Effect of failure to obtain leave to appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact

APPEAL – LEAVE TO APPEAL – Circumstances where leave of Court must be sought and obtained to file an appeal and effect of failure to obtain same

APPEAL – Leave to appeal – Conditions to be satisfied by an applicant seeking for extension of time to appeal

APPEAL – Leave to appeal – Duty of the court to grant leave to appeal under exceptional circumstances

APPEAL – Leave to appeal – Whether an appeal against an interlocutory decision which is not on a ground of law requires leave of Court

APPEAL – LEAVE TO APPEAL – Whether leave is required where a ground of appeal raises the question of mixed law and fact

APPEAL – Misdirection – What Constitutes Misdirection In Law

APPEAL – New Issue on Appeal – Need for the leave to be obtained before raising New Issue on Appeal

APPEAL – New Issues – Whether the Court of Appeal will allow a party to raise a point which was not taken in the court below

APPEAL – PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Grounds of Appeal – Whether for grounds of appeal to be valid and competent must relate to the decision appealed against

APPEAL – PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Grounds of AppealWhether leave of court is required to file an appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact and effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – Preliminary Objection to an appeal – Need for Preliminary Objection to an appeal to be taken before the substantive appeal

APPEAL – Records of Appeal – Powers of the Appellate Court to amend record of trial court: 

APPEAL – Reply Brief – Aim of reply brief – Whether a reply brief is meant to re-argue the case of the appellant

APPEAL – Reply Brief – Function of a reply brief

APPEAL – Reply Brief – Purport of – Whether a reply brief is meant to improve on the quality of the argument in the Appellant’s brief

APPEAL – Reply Brief – Purpose of Reply Brief – Whether or not a Reply Brief is meant to improve on the quality of the argument in the Appellant’s brief

APPEAL – Unchallenged findings – Effect of failure to challenge findings or decision of court by way of appeal

APPEAL – VENUE – Filing of Notice of Appeal – Proper venue to file notice of appeal

APPEAL TO THE SUPREME COURT – Whether the Supreme Court can entertain an appeal directly from the decision of the High Court

APPEAL – APPEAL AGAINST INTERLOCUTORY RULING/FINAL DECISION – Distinction between an interlocutory and final decision; time within which to appeal against a final decision and when such appeal will be held to have been filed within time

APPEAL – APPEAL AS OF RIGHT – Instances/cases where an appeal will lie as of right

APPEAL – APPEAL TO THE SUPREME COURT – Attitude of the Supreme Court when an appeal appears to be defective

APPEAL – APPEAL TO THE SUPREME COURT – Position of the law as regards appeals to the Supreme Court

APPEAL – APPEAL TO THE SUPREME COURT – Statutory provision as regards time within which to appeal to the Supreme Court; effect of failure to appeal within time

APPEAL – APPEALABLE/UNAPPEALABLE DECISION – Whether an obiter qualifies as an appealable decision

APPEAL – BRIEF OF ARGUMENT – Effect of failure of appellant to file brief of argument within time stipulated by the Rules; whether the Supreme Court can set aside its decision affirming the dismissal of an appeal for failure of appellant to file brief of argument

APPEAL – BRIEF OF ARGUMENT – Effect of failure of appellant to file brief of argument within time stipulated by the Rules; whether the Supreme Court can set aside its decision affirming the dismissal of an appeal for failure of appellant to file brief of argument

APPEAL – CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Whether an appellate Court will allow a question of fact to be reopened where there are concurrent findings on same:

APPEAL – CRIMINAL APPEAL – Time within which to file a criminal appeal to the Supreme Court from the decision of the Court of Appeal; effect of failure

APPEAL – EXTENSION/ENLARGEMENT OF TIME TO APPEAL – Principles guiding the grant of an application for extension of time within which to appeal

APPEAL – FILING/ENTRY OF APPEAL – Statutory period for filing an appeal in a criminal cause or matter; effect of filing such appeal out of time and without leave of Court

APPEAL – FILING/ENTRY OF APPEAL – Statutory period for filing an appeal in a criminal cause or matter; effect of filing such appeal out of time and without leave of Court

APPEAL – FILING/ENTRY OF APPEAL – Statutory period for filing an appeal in a criminal cause or matter; effect of filing such appeal out of time and without leave of Court

APPEAL – FILING/ENTRY OF APPEAL – Effect of failure to file a cross appeal against a final decision in a civil matter to the Supreme Court within the statutorily prescribed time

APPEAL – FILING/ENTRY OF APPEAL – Effect of failure to file a cross appeal against a final decision in a civil matter to the Supreme Court within the statutorily prescribed time

APPEAL – FILING/ENTRY OF APPEAL – Statutory period for filing an appeal in a criminal cause or matter; effect of filing such appeal out of time and without leave of Court

APPEAL – FILING/ENTRY OF APPEAL – Statutory period for filing an appeal in a criminal cause or matter; effect of filing such appeal out of time and without leave of Court

APPEAL – FILING/ENTRY OF APPEAL – Statutory time prescribed for appealing in a criminal matter and effect of breach of same

APPEAL – FORMULATION OF ISSUE(S) FOR DETERMINATION – Whether issues for determination of an appeal can be formulated from a preliminary objection

APPEAL – FORMULATION OF ISSUE(S) FOR DETERMINATION – Whether an appellate Court can adopt or formulate/reformulate issues for determination

APPEAL – FORMULATION OF ISSUE(S) FOR DETERMINATION – Whether issue(s) for determination and/or ground(s) of appeal must be related to the part of the decision appealed against; effect of failure

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Whether a case or an issue that was not raised in the lower court can be raised in the Appeal Court

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Circumstances when fresh point will not be entertained by the Supreme Court

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Effect of raising an issue for the first time on appeal without leave of Court where so required

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Instance(s) where an application for leave to raise fresh points on appeal will be refused

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Principles guiding the Appellate Courts in the exercise of their discretion to grant leave to a party to raise fresh point(s) on appeal

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Whether leave of Court must first be sought and obtained before fresh point can be raised on appeal; effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Whether leave of Court must first be sought and obtained before fresh point can be raised on appeal; effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Whether leave of Court must first be sought and obtained before fresh point can be raised on appeal and the exception(s) thereof

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – How to determine whether a ground of appeal is one of law, facts or mixed law and facts

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of a ground of appeal and the issue formulated therefrom not flowing from the decision appealed against

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of a ground of appeal from which no issue for determination is formulated

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – How to determine whether a ground of appeal is one of law, facts or mixed law and facts; effect of failure to obtain leave to file grounds of mixed law and fact

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – How to determine whether a ground of appeal is one of law, facts or mixed law and facts; effect of failure to obtain leave to file grounds of mixed law and fact

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Instance where grounds appeal will be held to be of fact or mixed law and fact; whether leave of Court is required to appeal against same and effect of failure

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – What constitutes a competent ground of appeal; instance where a ground of appeal and issues for determination will be held not to constitute a complaint against the decision of a Court

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – What counsel should do when unsure as to whether a ground of appeal is one of facts or of mixed law and facts

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – When a ground of appeal will be held to have arisen from the ratio decidendi of the judgment appealed against and same competent

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether a ground of appeal is classified simply by the name given to it by parties; effect of failure to seek and obtain leave of Court to appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether an application challenging the competence of a ground of appeal must be determined first

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether leave of court is required to file an appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact and effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether leave of court is required to file an appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact and effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether leave of court is required to file an appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact and effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether leave of court is required to file an appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact and effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether leave of court is required to file and argue a ground of law

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL- Whether leave of court is required to file an appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact and effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – HEARING OF APPEAL – Whether the Court of Appeal can hear an appeal on the brief of the appellant alone

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH AWARD OF DAMAGES – Circumstances in which an appellate court will interfere with award of damages made by a trial Court

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts:

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where an appellate Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the appellate Court to concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts:

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts:

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts:

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Onus on an appellant appealing against concurrent findings of Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Whether appeals succeed against concurrent findings where the findings are found to be perverse; what amounts to perverse findings

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH EVALUATION OF EVIDENCE – Circumstance(s) when an Appellate Court will not interfere with evaluation of evidence made by a Trial Court

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH EVALUATION OF EVIDENCE – Instance(s) when an Appellate Court will/will not interfere with the evaluation of evidence of a Lower Court

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH EVALUATION OF EVIDENCE – Whether an appellate Court can interfere with the decision of the lower Court based on credibility of witnesses

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH FINDING(S) OF FACT(S)  – Whether an appellate court can interfere with findings of fact based on credibility of witnesses

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Whether an Appellate Court will interfere with the decision of a trial Court where the judgment of the court is right but the reasons are wrong

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH THE EXERCISE OF DISCRETION – Whether the grant or refusal of an application for bail is at the discretion of the Court; where an appellate court will not interfere

APPEAL – INTERLOCUTORY APPEAL – Time limit for filing an interlocutory appeal to the Supreme Court and effect of an interlocutory appeal to the Supreme Court filed out of time:

APPEAL – ISSUE(S) FOR DETERMINATION – Duty on a party who complains about the formulation of issue(s) by the Court

APPEAL – ISSUE(S) FOR DETERMINATION – Whether an appellant can argue issue(s) not subsumed in the ground(s) of appeal

APPEAL – ISSUE(S) FOR DETERMINATION – Whether issue(s) for determination must flow from a ground of appeal relating to the ratio of the decision appealed against; effect of failure

APPEAL – LEAVE OF COURT/LEAVE TO APPEAL – Effect of failure to obtain leave of court where same is required

APPEAL – LEAVE OF COURT/LEAVE TO APPEAL – Circumstances where leave of Court must be sought and obtained to file an appeal and effect of failure to obtain same

APPEAL – LEAVE OF COURT/LEAVE TO APPEAL – Effect of failure to seek leave of Court to file grounds of mixed law and facts

APPEAL – LEAVE OF COURT/LEAVE TO APPEAL – Effect of failure to seek leave of Court to file grounds of mixed law and facts

APPEAL – LEAVE OF COURT/LEAVE TO APPEAL – Whether an omnibus ground of appeal is a ground of fact for which leave of Court must be sought

APPEAL – LEAVE OF COURT/LEAVE TO APPEAL – Whether leave of Court is required to appeal on grounds of fact or mixed law and fact; effect of failure

APPEAL – LEAVE OF COURT/LEAVE TO APPEAL – Whether leave of Court is required to appeal on grounds of fact or mixed law and fact; effect of failure

APPEAL – LEAVE OF COURT/LEAVE TO APPEAL – Whether leave of Court is required to appeal on grounds of fact or mixed law and fact; effect of failure

APPEAL – LEAVE OF COURT/LEAVE TO APPEAL – Whether leave of the Court of Appeal or Supreme Court is required to appeal on ground(s) of fact or mixed law and fact to the Supreme Court; effect of failure to seek leave

APPEAL – LEAVE OF COURT/LEAVE TO APPEAL – Whether the granting of leave to appeal is not sufficient to cure the defect in a notice of appeal that had earlier been filed without leave having regard to the decision of the Supreme Court in Williams v. Mokwe

APPEAL – LEAVE OF COURT/LEAVE TO APPEAL- Circumstances when leave of Court must be sought and obtained to file an appeal and effect of failure to obtain same

APPEAL – NATURE OF APPEAL – Nature of an appeal

APPEAL – NATURE OF APPEAL – Whether a ground of appeal must be directed at an obiter dictum or the ratio decidendi of the judgment appealed against

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of a notice of appeal filed out of time

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of a notice of appeal filed out of time

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of a notice of appeal filed out of time:

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect oa notice of appeal filed out of time

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Time within which to file notice of appeal in criminal matters and effect of a notice of appeal filed out of time

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Time within which to file notice of appeal in criminal matters and effect of a notice of appeal filed out of time

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Whether a purported amended notice of appeal can validly amend a fundamentally defective original notice of appeal

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of a notice of appeal filed out of time

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of a notice of appeal filed out of time

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of a notice of appeal filed out of time

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of a notice of appeal filed out of time

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Instances where a notice of appeal will be incompetent

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Whether a defective Notice of Appeal can be cured by amendment

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL- Effect of failure to specify the part of the judgment being appealed against in a notice of appeal

APPEAL – RECORD OF APPEAL – Evolvement of the law on duty of registrar, appellant and respondent in compilation and transmission of record of appeal to the Court of Appeal

APPEAL – RECORD OF APPEAL – Importance of the record of appeal and whether parties and the Court are bound by it; function of the record of proceedings

APPEAL – RECORD OF APPEAL – Principle of law on compilation and transmission of record of appeal to the Court of Appeal

APPEAL – RECORD OF APPEAL – Whether an appellate Court can act on an incomplete record

APPEAL – RECORD OF APPEAL – Whether parties and the Court are bound by the record of appeal

APPEAL – RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS – Whether the parties and the court are bound by the record of proceedings

APPEAL – REPLY BRIEF – Purpose/function of a reply brief; when a reply brief will not be necessary:

APPEAL – UNAPPEALED FINDING(S)/DECISION(S) – Effect of unappealed finding(s)/decision(s) of court

APPEAL – UNAPPEALED FINDING(S)/DECISION(S) – Effect of unappealed finding(s)/decision(s) of court

APPEAL – UNAPPEALED FINDING(S)/DECISION(S) – Position of the law as regards judgment of a Court not appealed against

APPEAL: CONCURRENT FINDINGS – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) by Lower Courts

APPEAL: GROUNDS OF APPEAL –  Whether leave of court is required to appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact – Effect of failure to obtain leave

BANKING

BANKING – Banker/customer relationship – Duty of banker to give account to the customer

BANKING – CONTRACT – Banker/Customer relationship – Refusal of Banker to pay customer’s cheque – Whether or not amounts to breach of contract:

BANKING LAW – LOAN – Duty on a debtor to pay back loans

BILL OF LADING

BILL OF LADING – Indorsement of – The two known ways of indorsing:

CASE LAW

CASE LAW – JUDICIAL PRECEDENT/STARE DECISIS – Whether cases are only authorities for what they decided; whether an obiter of the Supreme Court is binding on lower courts and instance where same will become binding

CASE LAW – JUDICIAL PRECEDENT/STARE DECISIS – Doctrine of stare decisis; whether the granting of leave to appeal is not sufficient to cure the defect in a notice of appeal that had earlier been filed without leave having regard to the decision of the Supreme Court in Williams v. Mokwe

COMPANY LAW

COMPANY LAW – Effect of matters inconsistent with the powers given in the memorandum and articles – When a company can be held liable on ultra vires contract

COMPANY LAW – DERIVATIVE ACTION – Instance(s) where an action will be held not to be a derivative action and as such no is leave required to institute same

COMPANY LAW – INSTITUTING AN ACTION IN THE NAME OF A COMPANY – Whether an action can be instituted in the name of a company to vent private grievances

COMPANY LAW – INSTITUTING AN ACTION IN THE NAME OF A COMPANY – Whether an action can be instituted in the name of a company to vent private grievances

COMPANY LAW – MANAGING DIRECTOR – Ground(s) for removal of chairman of the Board of Directors or the Managing Director of a company

COMPANY LAW – MANAGING DIRECTOR – Whether a person can be appointed a “Life Chairman of the Board of Directors or Managing Director for Life”

COMPANY LAW – MEETING(S) – Whether a chairman removed by the shareholders of a company has the locus standi to preside over subsequent meetings of the board as chairman

COMPANY LAW – MEETING(S) – Whether a chairman removed by the shareholders of a company has the locus standi to preside over subsequent meetings of the board as chairman

COMPANY LAW – MEETING(S) – Whether a member can be chosen as chairman at an annual general meeting

COMPANY LAW – MEETING(S) – Whether the removal, election, appointment of director constitutes one of the ordinary businesses of an annual general meeting; what qualifies as sufficient notice

COMPANY LAW – RULE IN FOSS V. HARBOTTLE – The rule in Foss Vs Harbottle and instance where same will be inapplicable; Effect of the Memorandum and Articles of Association of a company

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – FAIR HEARING – Accused person who fails to defend himself after adequate notice of the allegations against him – Whether or not can be deemed in law to have accepted all the facts and evidence against him

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – FAIR HEARING – Principles of fair hearing

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT – Whether a party that had an opportunity to be heard but did not utilize it can bring an action for breach of fair hearing

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS – Right to fair hearing – Circumstances where a party cannot complain of being denied right to fair hearing:

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – Person charged with a criminal offence – Need to be given adequate time and facilities to prepare for his defence

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – BREACH OF CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION(S) – Rule against violation of one provision of the Constitution in a bid to remedy the alleged breach of another

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – BREACH OF RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Effect of breach of right to fair hearing

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – BREACH OF RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Whether a party who had an opportunity of being heard but did not utilize it can bring an action for breach of fair hearing

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – BREACH OF RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Whether an accused person who willfully absented himself from his trial thereby causing a delay in same can complain that his right to fair hearing has been breached

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – CONSTITUTION – Meaning of Constitution and the evolution of constitutionalism

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION – Whether a Local Government Councillor comes within the purview of political office holders as provided for in the Constitution whose salaries shall be determined and charged upon the Consolidated Revenue Fund of the State by the Revenue Mobilization Allocation and Fiscal Commission

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION – Whether a Local Government Councillor comes within the purview of political office holders as provided for in the Constitution whose salaries shall be determined and charged upon the Consolidated Revenue Fund of the State by the Revenue Mobilization Allocation and Fiscal Commission

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – CONSTITUTIONAL VALIDITY OF LEGISLATION – Constitutional validity of Sections 391-395 of the Penal Code Law, FCT creating the offence of criminal defamation

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – CONSTITUTIONAL VALIDITY OF LEGISLATION – Whether the Anambra State Public Officers Salaries Law No, 7 of 2001 is inconsistent with Section 124(4) of the 1999 Constitution, as amended and ultra vires the powers of the Anambra State House of Assembly

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – CONSTITUTIONAL VALIDITY OF LEGISLATION – Whether the Anambra State Public Officers Salaries Law No, 7 of 2001 is inconsistent with Section 124(4) of the 1999 Constitution, as amended and ultra vires the powers of the Anambra State House of Assembly

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – CONSTITUTIONAL VALIDITY OF LEGISLATION – Whether Section 12(1) and (2) of the Local Government Law of Enugu State granting power to the Governor of Enugu State to remove democratically-elected Chairmen of Local Government Councils and replace them with caretaker committees is inconsistent with Section 7 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – ENFORCEMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHT(S) – Proper Court with jurisdiction to entertain any suit for enforcement of fundamental rights

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – ENFORCEMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHT(S) – Proper Court with jurisdiction to entertain any suit for enforcement of fundamental rights and instance where the Federal High Court will be held to have jurisdiction to entertain same

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – ENFORCEMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHT(S) – Whether the enforcement of fundamental right must be the main claim in an application brought under the Fundamental Rights Enforcement Rules

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR – Position of the law where a Governor of a State holds another executive office/paid employment during his tenure of office

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR – Whether Section 183 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 (as amended) applies only to the Governor of a State and to no other person/body/political party

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR – Whether the holder of the office of the Governor of a State can hold any other executive office/paid employment in any capacity during his tenure in office

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Principles of fair hearing; whether a party who had an opportunity of being heard but did not utilize it can bring an action for breach of fair hearing

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Whether a party who had an opportunity of being heard but did not utilize it can bring an action for breach of fair hearing

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Whether parties must be heard before their rights are determined

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Attribute of the principle of fair hearing; whether a party must be given a hearing before a decision is taken against him

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Essential elements of fair hearing:

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Fundamental nature of the right to fair hearing; effect of breach of same and duty of a party alleging breach of right to fair hearing

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Principle of fair hearing in relation to the rule of audi alteram partem

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Right of a person to a fair hearing in public within a reasonable time by a Court or Tribunal and when a person will be held to have waived same

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Statutory provision as regards the right to fair hearing

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Whether a party who will be affected by the result of a trial must be given opportunity of being heard:

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Whether the right to fair hearing can be waived or be statutorily taken away

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION – Whether a charge for the offence of criminal defamation as contained in a First Information Report brought under Sections 391-395 of the Penal Code Law, Abuja constitutes a violation of the constitutionally guaranteed right to freedom of expression

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION – Effect of any Law or Act that is inconsistent with the Constitution

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION – Nature and effect of the supremacy of the Constitution

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION – Nature and effect of the supremacy of the Constitution

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION – Statutory Provision as regards the supremacy of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria:

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – THE RULE OF NATURAL JUSTICE – What the rule of audi alteram partem postulates

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, FAIR HEARING – Whether denial of the right to fair hearing must be raised on solid grounds

CONTRACT

CONTRACT – Breach of Contract – Effect of failure of a party to exercise his right to terminate a contract for reason of breach – Whether the party is at liberty to exercise same in subsequent breach

CONTRACT – Contract made in the name of an agent without disclosing any principal – Personal liability of the agent thereto – Whether foreknowledge of existence of a principal exonerates the agent:

CONTRACT – Contract of Employment – Notice required for termination of contract of employment – Where duration not specifically stated – Need to be reasonable – Whether applicable to employee under probation

CONTRACT – Contract of Employment – Reasonable notice – Need to be determined based on each case – Circumstances to be considered when determining duration of notice

CONTRACT – Counter Offer – Legal effect of Counter Offer

CONTRACT – DAMAGES – Wrongful Dismissal – Principles governing award of damages in contract

CONTRACT – EMPLOYMENT – Duration of contracts between master and servant – Where terms of contract not certain – Presumption of one year term

CONTRACT – Enforcement of contract – Whether a contract can be enforced by or against a person who is not a party thereto

CONTRACT – General contract of hiring for a year definite – How contract of hiring for a year can be terminated

CONTRACT – Liability of agent – Contract made in the name of an agent without disclosing any principal – Personal liability of an agent

CONTRACT – Offer – Whether an offer can be accepted by conduct:

CONTRACT – Offer and acceptance – Whether acceptance of an offer is necessary in order to crystallise a contract

CONTRACT – TENANCY – Frustration of contract – Instances where contract/tenancy can be frustrated

CONTRACT – Terms of contract – Breach of a fundamental term in a contract – Whether the party in breach will not be allowed to benefit from or resort to exclusion clauses

CONTRACT – CONSIDERATION – Whether the photocopy of a bank draft qualifies as consideration; effect of failure to conclude on a fundamental part in a contract

CONTRACT – FORMATION OF CONTRACT – Meaning of contract: what distinguishes contractual obligations from other legal obligations

CONTRACT – INVITATION TO TREAT – What is an invitation to treat; whether same constitutes an offer or a contract enforceable by an order of specific performance

CONTRACT – SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE – Condition that must exist before an order of specific performance can be made

CONTRACT – SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE – Instance(s) in which an order of specific performance will not be made

CONTRACT – SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE – Instance(s) in which an order of specific performance will not be made

CONTRACT – SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE – Instance(s) in which an order of specific performance will not be made

CONTRACT – VALIDITY OF CONTRACT – Essential elements of a valid contract

CONTRACT, LABOUR LAW – Master and Servant – Whether court can impose a worker or a willing servant on an unwilling employer

COURT

COURT – DISCRETION – When discretion is wrongly exercised to non-suit – Duty of the Court of Appeal to interfere with exercise of discretion: 

COURT – Duty of Court – Whether or not the Court can make case for parties:

COURT – Duty of court – Whether to punish or to determine the real issues in controversy: 

COURT – Duty of the Court – Duty of the Court to pronounce on a claim before it in respect of which evidence has been led

COURT – EVIDENCE – Evaluation of Evidence – Duty of Court to Evaluate Evidence – Whether goes beyond taking evidence and watching the demeanour of witnesses

COURT – EVIDENCE – Power of Court to call a witness in a civil action without the consent of parties: 

COURT – Exercise of discretion – Where an appellate court can interfere with exercise of discretion by the lower court:

COURT – JUDGMENT AND ORDER – Reliefs – Whether the Court can grant an order or relief not sought

COURT – Power of Court – Whether powers of court include power to award what a party did not ask for

COURT – Power of the Court of Appeal as provided for under Section 15 of the Court of Appeal ActPower to make any order necessary to determine the real question in controversy in an appeal and to amend any defect or error in the record of appeal

COURT – Reliefs – Whether Court can grant to a party what he did not ask for

COURT – Reliefs not claimed – Whether Court can grant to a party what he did not ask for

COURT – COMPETENCE OF COURT – What determines the competence of a Court to exercise jurisdiction

COURT – COMPETENCE OF COURT – When will a Court be said to be competent; effect of defect in competence of Court

COURT – COURT OF APPEAL – Duty of the Court of Appeal as a penultimate Court to consider all issues placed before it on the merit

COURT – COURT OF APPEAL – Duty of the Court of Appeal in dealing with matters which come on appeal before it

COURT – DISCRETION OF COURT – When will discretion of Court be said to have been exercised judicially and judiciously

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Duty of Court in rendering its decision over a particular dispute; whether a Court is a Court of both law and facts

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Duty of Court to be consistent in its findings

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Duty of court in interpreting a statute

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Duty of Court in the interpretation of relevant laws or statutes

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Duty of intermediate Courts to pronounce on all issues raised for determination

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Duty of the Court to do substantial justice

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Duty of the trial court to assess credibility of witnesses

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Whether a court of law has the legal duty to confine itself only to authorities cited by the parties

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Whether a Court of law has the legal duty to confine itself only to authorities cited by the parties; exception(s) thereto

COURT – JURISDICTION – What determines jurisdiction of Court to entertain a cause/matter

COURT – JURISDICTION – Basis of exercise of jurisdiction of Court

COURT – JURISDICTION – Effect where a court lacks jurisdiction over a matter:

COURT – JURISDICTION – Guidelines for determining whether a Court has jurisdiction where the Federal Government or its agencies is a party

COURT – JURISDICTION – Importance of jurisdiction and effect of proceedings conducted where Court lacks jurisdiction

COURT – JURISDICTION – Importance of jurisdiction of Court; what determines whether a court has jurisdiction

COURT – JURISDICTION – Importance of jurisdiction:

COURT – JURISDICTION – Importance of jurisdiction; effect where a Court lacks jurisdiction over a matter

COURT – JURISDICTION – Meaning and importance of jurisdiction:

COURT – JURISDICTION – What confers jurisdiction on a Court:

COURT – JURISDICTION – Whether Court can exceed its limits where a law that confers jurisdiction on it limits it to the determination of specific questions

COURT – JURISDICTION – Whether Court has jurisdiction where a case within its jurisdiction is predicated on a primary issue that is not within its jurisdiction:

COURT – POWER OF COURT – Extent and scope of judicial powers vested in the Courts by virtue of Section 6(6) of the Constitution

COURT – POWER OF COURT – Instance where the Supreme Court can exercise its powers under Section 22 of the Supreme Court Act

COURT – RAISING ISSUE(S) SUO MOTU – Instance(s) where a Court raising an issue suo motu and deciding it without hearing parties will not amount to a miscarriage of justice

COURT – RAISING ISSUE(S) SUO MOTU – Whether a Court can raise an issue suo motu and determine it without hearing parties

COURT – RAISING ISSUE(S) SUO MOTU – Whether a Court can raise an issue suo motu and determine it without hearing parties; distinction between raising an issue suo motu and looking into the case/file by the Court to determine a matter:

COURT – RECORD(S) OF COURT – Whether the Court is entitled to look at its file or record and make use of the contents

COURT, JUDGMENT AND ORDER – Power to make Order or relief – Whether a judge has power to make an order or grant a relief which has not been asked by the plaintiff in his pleadings

COURT, JURISDICTION – Jurisdiction of court – When challenged – Need to be resolved or disposed of

CRIMINAL LAW & PROC

CRIMINAL LAW AND PRACTICE – ARRAIGNMENT – Taking of plea – Whether taking of plea of the defendant in block vitiates the proceedings – Need to be treated as a mere irregularity

CRIMINAL LAW AND PRACTICE – ARRAIGNMENT – What constitutes a valid arraignment under Section 36 of the 1999 Constitution and Section 309 of the Administration of Criminal Justice Law of Anambra State

CRIMINAL LAW AND PRACTICE – Charges – Amendment of charges – Effect of failure to call upon an accused to plead to an amended charge: 

CRIMINAL LAW AND PRACTICE – Conviction – Conviction under wrong law – Effect of charging, trying and convicting an accused person under a wrong law – Whether conviction under a wrong law amounts to a mere irregularity

CRIMINAL LAW AND PRACTICE – Criminal liability of an accused – Whether defence of insanity based on delusion can avail an accused person:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PRACTICE – Double Jeopardy – When the plea of double jeopardy will not avail an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PRACTICE – Intoxication – Need to lead evidence in support of intoxication: 

CRIMINAL LAW AND PRACTICE – Obtaining Money by false pretence – Ingredients the prosecution must establish and prove to succeed in offence of obtaining money by false pretence

CRIMINAL LAW AND PRACTICE, EVIDENCE – Burden and standard of proof in criminal cases

CRIMINAL LAW AND PRACTICE, WORDS AND PHRASES –Meaning of conspiracy

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Abetment – Meaning of abetment

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – ADMISSIBILITY OF CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Principles relating to the admissibility or otherwise of confessional statements

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Admissibility of confessional statement – When confessional statement is challenged on the ground that it was not made voluntarily – Duty of the trial judge to hear evidence as to the manner in which it was made:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Alibi – Effect of failure of police or prosecution to investigate and disprove the defence of alibi when raised

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Alibi – Evidence of alibi – When Evidence of alibi may be disregarded by court – Onus on the Defence to prove his defence of Alibi

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Allocutus – Plea of Allocutus – Whether a fundamental right

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Armed robbery – Ingredients of the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Arraignment – Taking of the plea of an accused in a criminal trial – Importance of plea or arraignment – Effect of non-compliance with the requirements of a valid arraignment

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Bail of an accused person – When an accused person jumps bail – What the court should do when an accused person jumps bail

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Cause of death – Certificate of a medical officer in proof of cause of death – Weight to be attached to certificate of cause of death – Whether trial judge is bound to act upon certificate of cause of death

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Cause of death – Whether the cause of death must be the act of the accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Charges – Amendment of Charges – Effect of failure to take fresh plea after amendment:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Co-accused Persons – When Co-accused Persons can be jointly held criminally liable

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Concurrent findingsInstances where the Supreme Court may interfere with concurrent findings of facts by Lower Courts

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Confessional statementConditions to be satisfied before a confessional statement can be used to convict an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Confessional Statement – Meaning of confessional Statement – When a confessional Statement is voluntarily made – Effect and weight to be attached to the confessional Statement

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Confessional statement – When a confessional statement is obtained with the aid of an interpreter Need for both the interpreter and the person who recorded the statement to give evidence in Court

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – When objection to confessional statement is on the ground that it was not made as opposed to involuntariness – When trial within trial is required and when it is not required

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Confessional statement – When the court may convict on confessional statement without corroboration

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Confessional Statement – Where Confessional Statement is made in a language other than English LanguageNeed for the original statement to be tendered

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Confessional statement Whether a court can convict solely on the confessional statement of an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Confessional Statement – Whether a court can convict solely on the confessional statement of an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a retraction or denial of a confessional statement affects its admissibility

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Contradictions – Conflicting versions of the prosecution’s case – Whether the prosecution can prove the guilt of an accused person beyond reasonable doubts by putting two different versions of the same incident or transaction before the Court

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Contradictions – Material contradictions in the prosecution’s case – Need to resolve doubts created by Material contradictions in the prosecution’s case in favour of the accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONVICTION – Whether a Court can convict an accused person of a lesser offence

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Criminal Liability – Presence at the scene of crime – What the prosecution must establish to succeed against an accused present at the scene of crime

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Criminal Liability – Whether mere presence and callousness at the scene of a crime renders one criminally liable 

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Criminal misappropriation What the prosecution must establish to succeed in a charge of criminal misappropriation

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Culpable homicide punishable with deathIngredients that must be proved to establish the offence of culpable homicide punishable with death

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDUREDefence of insanityWhen the defence of insanity will not avail an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Effect of an accused resting his case on that of the prosecution

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – EVIDENCE – Credibility of Witnesses – Duty of the trial court to assess credibility of witnesses:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – EVIDENCE: Circumstances under which evidence given at a preliminary inquiry can be accepted as evidence in any subsequent proceedings

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Extra judicial confessional statements – Whether is sufficient to support conviction without corroboration

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Firearms – Criminal liability for recklessness and negligence in handling of firearms

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE Forfeiture of bail bond – Principles guiding the grant or refusal of an application for forfeiture of bail bond

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Free and voluntary confession of guilt by a prisoner – Whether sufficient to warrant convictions without any corroborative evidence

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Ingredients and standard of proof required for the offence of criminal misappropriation

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – JUDGMENT AND ORDERS – Retrial – Circumstances under which Retrial can it be granted in criminal appeals

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – JUDGMENT AND ORDERS – Retrial – Circumstances for grant of retrial – Whether Circumstances for grant of retrial must co-exist

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Liability of a surety after final judgment – Whether or not the liability of a surety terminates or survives the final judgment of the trial court

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – MurderEssential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to secure conviction for the offence of murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Murder – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to secure conviction for the offence of murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – No case submission Position of the law regarding no case submission

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Number of Prosecution Witnesses – Whether the prosecution must call a particular number of witnesses to prove its case – Failure to call a vital and material witness – Effect of the failure on the prosecution’s case

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Offence of murder – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a  conviction for murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCES – ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCES – ATTEMPT – When a person can be convicted for an attempt to commit rape – What the prosecution must establish to succeed in attempt to commit rape

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCES OF ARMED ROBBERY –  Ingredients that must exist to prove offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Order of retrial – Circumstances under which order of retrial can be granted:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Proof – The requirement of the law as regard proof beyond reasonable doubt

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Provocation – Elements of provocation – Whether elements of provocation must co-exist

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Provocation – What the Accused must prove to succeed – Need for the elements to coexist to establish provocation

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Sentence – Whether the courts can impose anything less than the mandatory sentence prescribed by a statute

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – SENTENCING – Whether a Court has discretion or power to alter a mandatory sentence imposed by law

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – STEALING –  Ingredients of the offence of stealing

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Ways of proving criminal offences

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Weapon used for commission of an offence and medical reportWhether weapon and medical report must be tendered in all cases for the prosecution to succeed

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Weight to be attached to confessional statements – The test to be applied in determining weight to be attached to confessional statement: 

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – ALLOCUTUS – Meaning of allocutus

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – ALLOCUTUS – Whether a Judge has jurisdiction to listen to allocutus and the discretion to reduce death penalty to a term of years once the accused person has been found guilty

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – AMENDMENT OF CHARGE – Effect of failure to call on the accused person to plead to an amended charge:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – AMENDMENT OF CHARGE – Effect of failure to call on the accused person to plead to an amended charge:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – AMENDMENT OF CHARGE – Position of the law where a Court amends a charge suo motu without reference to counsel and without taking a fresh plea of the accused person:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – ARRAIGNMENT/TAKING OF PLEA – Requirements for a valid arraignment

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – ARRAIGNMENT/TAKING OF PLEA – Options open to an accused person upon his arraignment before the Court:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – ATTEMPT TO COMMIT AN OFFENCE – Ingredients of the offence of attempt to commit armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – BAIL – Duty of a judge when considering an application for bail

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CHARGE(S) – Duty of Court where an accused is arraigned on a defective charge:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CHARGE(S) – Guiding principles in considering an application to quash a charge

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CHARGE(S) – Whether a charge can be substituted at any time; condition(s) for a charge to be validly substituted

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CHARGE(S) – Whether an incompetent charge can be substituted

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CHARGE(S) – Whether filing a charge pursuant to a wrong law renders the charge incompetent

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONVICTION  – Whether a person can be convicted for both offences of criminal breach of trust and cheating based on the same factual situation in respect of one transaction in the same proceedings:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONVICTION AND SENTENCE – Duty of Court before convicting an accused person; instance where conviction and sentence of an accused person will be set aside

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONVICTION FOR LESSER OFFENCE  – Position of the law as regards conviction for lesser offence; whether an accused can rightly be convicted for receiving goods which are proceeds of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONVICTION FOR LESSER OFFENCE – Position of the law as regards conviction for lesser offence; whether an accused can rightly be convicted for receiving goods which are proceeds of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONVICTION FOR LESSER OFFENCE – Whether an appellate Court can convict and impose a sentence on an accused person for a lesser offence than that for which he was convicted by the trial Court

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONVICTION FOR LESSER OFFENCE – Whether an appellate Court can convict and impose a sentence on an accused person for a lesser offence than that for which he was convicted by the trial Court

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONVICTION – Instance where a court will be held to have rightly convicted an accused person on his plea of guilt and other exhibits tendered

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CRIMINAL LIABILITY/RESPONSIBILITY – When an accused person would be absolved of criminal liability

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CRIMINAL PROSECUTION – Purpose of criminal law; how conviction for a crime is obtained

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CRIMINAL PROSECUTION – Whether a First Information Report upon which an accused was charged for the offence of criminal defamation can be declared unconstitutional and same quashed at the arraignment stage:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CRIMINAL TRIAL/PROCEEDINGS – Position of the law on the validity of a plea of guilt by an accused person and the consequence of same in a criminal trial and the validity of the arraignment of an accused person in the light of the absence of an interpreter during a criminal trial

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CRIMINAL TRIAL/PROCEEDINGS – Whether an accused person who contributed to the delay in his trial can apply for an order quashing/dismissing all the charges against him and discharging him because of the long delay in his trial

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Conditions that must be met for the defence of accident to avail an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Conditions that must be met for the defence of accident to avail an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Meaning of accident; duty of prosecution to disprove the defence of accident when raised by accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Meaning of accident

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – When the defence of accident should be raised

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – When the defence of accident should be raised

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Whether an accused person can raise the defence of accident for the unintended result of a deliberate act

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Whether an accused person can raise the defence of accident for the unintended result of a deliberate act

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Whether an accused person can raise the defence of accident for the unintended result of a deliberate act

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Whether an accused person can raise the defence of accident for the unintended result of a deliberate act

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Whether an accused person can raise the defence of accident for the unintended result of a deliberate act

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF INSANITY – Elements to be proved to establish the defence of insanity

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF INSANITY – Guiding principles in establishing insanity

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE(S) OF ACCUSED PERSON(S) – Duty of court to consider all defences available to an accused person; Instance where same will not arise

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE(S) OF ACCUSED PERSON(S) – Duty of an appellant to identify the facts or evidence on the record that establishes his defence

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE(S) OF ACCUSED PERSON(S) – Whether an appellate court can consider the defences available to an accused person where a trial court failed to do so

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE/PLEA OF ALIBI – Circumstances where the defence of alibi would not avail an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE/PLEA OF ALIBI – Duty of an accused person raising the defence of alibi

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE/PLEA OF ALIBI – Duty of the prosecution to investigate the plea of alibi raised by an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE/PLEA OF ALIBI – Effect of a successful plea of alibi

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE/PLEA OF ALIBI – Effect of an accused person raising the defence of alibi at trial and not before trial

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE/PLEA OF ALIBI – Meaning and nature of the defence of alibi

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE/PLEA OF ALIBI – Position of the law on the defence of alibi

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – GUILT OF AN ACCUSED PERSON – Duty of the prosecution and the Court in proving the guilt of an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – GUILT OF AN ACCUSED PERSON – How to establish/prove the guilt of an accused person:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – GUILT OF AN ACCUSED PERSON – How to establish/prove the guilt of an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – GUILT OF AN ACCUSED PERSON – How to establish/prove the guilt of an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – GUILT OF AN ACCUSED PERSON – How to establish/prove the guilt of an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Circumstances where an identification parade will not be necessary

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Circumstances where an identification parade will not be necessary

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Circumstances where an identification parade will not be necessary

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Circumstances where an identification parade will not be necessary

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Circumstances where an identification parade will not be necessary:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Circumstances where an identification parade will not be necessary

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Position of the law as regards identification parade

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Position of the law as regards identification parade

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – When identification parade will/will not be necessary

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – When identification parade will/will not be necessary:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – INTENTION – Circumstance(s) when an accused will be held to have intentionally caused the death of the deceased

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – INTENTION – Circumstance(s) when an accused will be held to have intentionally caused the death of the deceased

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – INTENTION – How intention is inferred in murder cases

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – INTENTION – How intention is inferred in murder cases

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – INTENTION – Whether in law a person is taken to have intended the natural consequence of his action

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – INTENTION – Whether in law a person is taken to have intended the natural consequence of his action; whether intention can be inferred from circumstantial facts/evidence

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – NO CASE SUBMISSION – Meaning of no case submission

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – NO CASE SUBMISSION – Whether where an accused person has been discharged pursuant to a successful ruling on a no case submission of the substantive or main offence, the Court can proceed to convict on the ancillary offence:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – What constitute the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients of the offence of armed robbery; standard of proof required of the prosecution

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery; effect of failure to prove any the ingredients of the offence charged

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients that must exist to prove the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients required to be proved by the prosecution to establish the offence of conspiracy to commit armed robbery and armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Meaning of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Meaning of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – What constitute the offence of armed robbery

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Whether a toy gun falls within the definition of arms under the law

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Whether the weapon used to carry out armed robbery must be tendered by the prosecution to secure a conviction

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Whether the weapon used to carry out armed robbery must be tendered by the prosecution to secure a conviction

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CONSPIRACY – Whether a person can be convicted of conspiracy if the others are discharged and acquitted

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CONSPIRACY – Circumstance that would make a party guilty of the offence of conspiracy

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CONSPIRACY – How the offence of conspiracy can be inferred

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CONSPIRACY – How the offence of conspiracy can be inferred

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CONSPIRACY – Nature and Ingredients of the offence of Conspiracy

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CONSPIRACY – When the offence of conspiracy will be said to be complete

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CRIMINAL FORCE AND ASSAULT – What amounts to the offence of criminal force

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CULPABLE HOMICIDE PUNISHABLE WITH DEATH – Ingredients the prosecution must prove to establish the offence of culpable homicide punishable with death; effect of failure to prove same

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CULPABLE HOMICIDE PUNISHABLE WITH DEATH – Ingredients the prosecution must prove to establish the offence of culpable homicide punishable with death

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential elements of the offence of murder; instance(s) in which it will be held to have been proved beyond reasonable doubt

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Whether the prosecution in a murder charge must establish the date of death

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF RAPE – When would the offence of rape be said to have been committed

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF TERRORISM – Meaning and nature of the offence of terrorism

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF TERRORISM – Nature of international terrorism

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF TERRORISM – What constitutes giving support to acts of terrorism under Section 5(2) of the Terrorism (Prevention) Act, 2011 (as amended)

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF TERRORISM – What constitutes giving support to acts of terrorism under Section 5(2) of the Terrorism (Prevention) Act, 2011 (as amended)

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS – Ingredients of the offences of procurement of any person for prostitution, pornography and foreign travels which promote prostitution

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE(S) – Requirement of the law in bringing a charge under section 7 (1) (b) of the Advance Fee fraud and Other Related Offences Act; effect of failure:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – PLEA OF GUILT – Whether an accused who pleads guilty to a criminal charge can be convicted summarily

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – PROVISION OF AN INTERPRETER – Whether the right of an accused to an interpreter can be invoked on appeal by an appellant who had been represented by counsel at the trial as a ground for setting aside a conviction

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – PROVISION OF AN INTERPRETER – Whether failure to record the presence of an interpreter on subsequent trial dates would be sufficient to vitiate a trial

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – SENTENCING  – Circumstances under which an appellate Court will not interfere with the sentence imposed by the lower Court

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – SENTENCING – Circumstances under which an appellate Court will not interfere with the sentence imposed by the lower Court

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – SENTENCING – Whether a judge can only impose a sentence of death on an accused person who is found guilty of the offence of murder/culpable homicide punishable with death

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – SENTENCING – Whether a judge can only impose a sentence of death on an accused person who is found guilty of the offence of murder/culpable homicide punishable with death

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – SENTENCING – Whether the Court has the discretion to alter a mandatory statutory term of imprisonment

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – SUMMARY TRIAL – Meaning and nature of summary trial

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – UNLAWFUL POSSESSION OF FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION – Ingredients of the offence of illegal possession of firearms

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – UNLAWFUL POSSESSION OF FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION – Ingredients of the offence of illegal possession of firearms

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – UNLAWFUL POSSESSION OF FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION – Whether the offence of unlawful possession of firearms is a strict liability offence; whether possession alone is sufficient to establish same

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – UNLAWFUL POSSESSION OF NARCOTIC DRUG – Statutory provisions with respect to the offence of unlawful dealing with marijuana and the punishment for same; ingredients of the offence of unlawful possession of Indian hemp

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – UNLAWFUL POSSESSION OF NARCOTIC DRUGS – Statutory provisions with respect to the offence of unlawful dealing with marijuana and the punishment for same; ingredients of the offence of unlawful possession of Indian hemp

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE, EVIDENCE – Admissibility of confessional statement – Proper time to raise an objection to the admissibility of a confessional statement

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE, EVIDENCE – Burden and standard of proof in criminal cases

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE, EVIDENCE – Burden of proof in criminal trial – On whom lies the burden of proof in criminal trial – Whether the burden shifts in exceptional circumstances

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE, EVIDENCE – Burden of proof in criminal matters – On whom lies – Whether the burden of proof shifts when the Defence makes suggestions as to different possible cause of death

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE, EVIDENCE – Confessional statement – Effect of Confessional statement that is properly proved and admitted in evidence

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE, EVIDENCE – Confessional statementTests for determining the truth or weight to be attached to a confessional statement before a court can convict on it

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE, EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether court can convict solely on confessional statement

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE, EVIDENCE – CONSPIRACY to commit offence – Whether conspiracy can be inferred from circumstantial evidence

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Defective Charge – When a defect or error in a charge will not be a ground for quashing a conviction on the charge

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE: IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Factors the court must consider to guard against mistaken identity in an identification parade

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – Provocation – Meaning and Elements of provocation – Effect of successful plea of provocation

CUSTOMARY LAW

CUSTOMARY LAW – OATH TAKING – Whether parties who resort to oath taking to settle land matter/ any dispute are bound by it and position of the law on application of common law principles in such matter

DAMAGES

DAMAGES – Award of cost – Principles guarding award of cost – Discretion of the trial Court to award cost – Duty of the trial court to exercise its discretion judicially – When the Court of Appeal would be entitled to interfere and set aside an unjustifiable award

DAMAGES – Award of Damages – Principles guiding award of damages in an action for negligence: 

DAMAGES – Compensatory damages and general damages – Distinction between compensatory damages and general damages – Whether both compensatory and general damages can be awarded to same claimant

DAMAGES – Distinction between general and special damages

DAMAGES – Duty of the plaintiff to mitigate his damages – Effect of failure to mitigate:

DAMAGES – General damages and special damages – Distinction between:

DAMAGES – Special Damages – Meaning of special damages – Whether special damages must be claimed and strictly proved

DAMAGES – Special Damages – Need for special damages to be specifically pleaded and proved – Nature of evidence required to prove special damages:

DAMAGES – Special damages – Need to be claimed specifically and strictly proved –  Whether the court is entitled to make its own estimate:

DAMAGES – Special Damages – Whether special damages must be specifically pleaded and proved

DAMAGES – GENERAL DAMAGES – Guiding principles for the award of general damages

DAMAGES – SPECIAL DAMAGES – Whether special damages that have been specifically pleaded must be strictly proved

DAMAGES – SPECIAL/GENERAL DAMAGES – Distinction between general and special damages

DEMURRER

DEMURRER – When can be resorted to

DEMURRER – When raised before trial – The effect of – Whether amounts to admission of the allegation of facts

DETINUE

DETINUE – CLAIM IN DETINUE – Nature of Detinue – General damages for unlawful detention – When Damages may be awarded

DETINUE – NATURE OF DETINUE – Whether Claim for Damages can be accommodated in action for detinue – Nature of Damages Awardable in detinue

DOCUMENTS

DOCUMENTS – Admissibility of documents – Admissibility of Documents made in anticipation or during pendency of a suit

DOCUMENTS – EVIDENCE – “Proper custody” of a document – Meaning of proper custody: 

DOCUMENTS – EVIDENCE – Document not tendered and admitted in evidenceWhether a Court can act on it

ELECTION PETITION

ELECTION PETITION – BURDEN OF PROOF – What a petitioner contesting legality or lawfulness of votes cast in an election must show

ELECTION PETITION – ELECTION PETITION PROCEEDINGS – Whether the principle of agency applies where personal allegations are made against agent of a political party in an election petition:

ELECTION PETITION – ELECTION RESULT – How to prove allegation of unlawful exclusion of votes in an election; instance where a party would be held to have successfully proved unlawful exclusion of votes

ELECTION PETITION – GROUNDS FOR CHALLENGING AN ELECTION – Whether a petitioner can challenge an election on grounds of non-compliance with electoral regulations and guidelines

ELECTION PETITION – JOINDER OF PARTY(IES) – Position of the law as regards the effect of non-joinder of persons/parties against whom allegations were made in an election petition:

ELECTION PETITION – JURISDICTION OF ELECTION PETITION TRIBUNAL – Jurisdiction of the Governorship Election Tribunal as provided by the Constitution and whether it can act outside its scope:

ELECTION PETITION – PLEADINGS – Effect of variance between pleadings admitting sponsorship and ground alleging non-sponsorship in an election petition

ELECTION PETITIONS – Time limit within which the Court can hear and dispose of an appeal in a pre-election matter – Retrospective applicability of Section 285 (12) of the 1999 Constitution

ELECTORAL MATTERS

ELECTORAL MATTERS – QUALIFICATION/DISQUALIFICATION – Requirement of the law where there is allegation of falsification of educational certificate

ELECTORAL MATTERS – INTRA PARTY AFFAIRS – Whether Courts have jurisdiction over nomination or sponsorship of candidate by a political party

ELECTORAL MATTERSProcedure for appointment of Chairman and members of the State Independent Electoral Commission

ELECTORAL MATTERS – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proof required where there is an allegation of falsification of educational certificates; Effect of failure to discharge same

ELECTORAL MATTERS – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – On whom lie the onus of proving forgery of certificate

ELECTORAL MATTERS – JURISDICTION – Whether the court has jurisdiction to interfere with matters which concern the running of the internal affairs of political parties

ELECTORAL MATTERS – NOMINATION AND SPONSORSHIP OF CANDIDATE – What constitutes act of sponsorship of a candidate for an election by a political party and who takes the decision to sponsor

ELECTORAL MATTERS – NOMINATION AND SPONSORSHIP OF CANDIDATE – Whether the Electoral Act requires that letter/form forwarding name(s) of candidate(s) to be sponsored by a political party to INEC must be signed by the National Chairman and National Secretary of the party

ELECTORAL MATTERS – PARTY CONSTITUTION – Whether political parties as well as its members are bound by the party Constitution/guidelines

ELECTORAL MATTERS – PARTY CONSTITUTION – Whether political parties as well as its members are bound by the party Constitution/guidelines

ELECTORAL MATTERS – PRE-ELECTION MATTERS – Instance(s) when a matter will be held not to be a pre-election matter

ELECTORAL MATTERS – PRE-ELECTION MATTERS – Meaning of pre-election matters

ELECTORAL MATTERS – PRE-ELECTION MATTERS – Statutory definition of the phrase “pre-election matter”

ELECTORAL MATTERS – QUALIFICATION/DISQUALIFICATION – Effect where the evidence of a party asserting falsification of educational certificate is at variance with his pleadings

ELECTORAL MATTERS – QUALIFICATION/DISQUALIFICATION – Instance(s) in which the information given by a candidate in an affidavit document and/or Form CF001 will be held to be false; effect of same

ELECTORAL MATTERS – QUALIFICATION/DISQUALIFICATION – When is a candidate qualified for election into the office of a Governor of a State

ELECTORAL MATTERS – QUALIFICATION/DISQUALIFICATION – When is a candidate qualified for election into the office of a Governor of a State:

ELECTORAL MATTERS – QUALIFICATION/DISQUALIFICATION – Whether submission or presentation of certificate is the requirement of Section 177(d) of the Constitution as regards the gubernatorial screening process

EQUITY

EQUITY – Laches – Meaning of laches:

EQUITY – Principles of equity – Applicability ofHe who comes to equity must come with clean hands

EQUITY – DOCTRINE OF ELECTION – Meaning and application of the doctrine of election

EQUITY – PRINCIPLES OF EQUITY – Principles of equity

EQUITY – PRINCIPLES OF EQUITY – Whether a party can benefit from his own wrong

EQUITY – PRINCIPLES OF EQUITY – Whether equity will allow a party to use legal technicalities to commit fraud

ESTOPPEL

ESTOPPEL – : Meaning, Effect and application of 

ESTOPPEL – Estoppel by conduct – Instance of estoppel by conduct

ESTOPPEL – Estoppel per rem judicatam – “Party” – Meaning of party in respect of estoppel – When a party stands by and watches another fight his battle – Whether bound by the result

ESTOPPEL – Estoppel per rem judicatam – What the defendant must establish to succeed in plea of Estoppel per rem judicatam:

ESTOPPEL – Ingredients the defendant must establish to succeed in plea of estoppels:

ESTOPPEL – Meaning of estoppel per rem judicata

ESTOPPEL – Nature of estoppel – Whether estoppel is a substantive rule of law or rule of evidence:

ESTOPPEL – Order of dismissal – Whether order of dismissal operates as estoppel

ESTOPPEL – Plea of Estoppel – When estoppel can avail the plaintiff as well:

ESTOPPEL – Types of estoppel – “Cause of action estoppel” and “Issue estoppel” – Distinction between: 

ESTOPPEL – What must exist or the defendant must show to succeed:

EVIDENCE

EVIDENCE – Evaluation of evidence – Duty of the trial court to evaluate evidence vis-a-vis appellate court

EVIDENCE – Affidavit Evidence – Whether a trial by affidavit evidence can be conducted without the presence of the deponent to give oral evidence

EVIDENCE – AFFIDAVIT EVIDENCE – Whether facts not disputed or challenged are deemed to have been admitted

EVIDENCE – BURDEN AND STANDARD OF PROOF – On who lies the burden and standard of proof in criminal trials – How the burden can be discharged

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proof in criminal cases; what does proof beyond reasonable doubt mean:

EVIDENCE – Circumstantial Evidence – Offence of Murder – Whether Offence of Murder is provable by circumstantial evidence – Requirement thereof

EVIDENCE – COURT – Duty of Court – Whether the court can formulate evidence for any party before it

EVIDENCE – Cross-Examination – Purpose of cross-examination – Evidence elicited under cross-examination in support of the case of the party cross-examining – How evidence elicited under cross-examination should be treated

EVIDENCE – Distinction between inadmissible evidence and evidence admissible in certain conditions – Whether Inadmissible evidence can be admitted by consent

EVIDENCE – Documentary Evidence – Admissibility of documents – Whether an unsigned document can be admitted in evidence

EVIDENCE – Documentary evidence – Effect of failure to call the maker of a document where the authenticity of the document is challenged or in issue

EVIDENCE – Documentary Evidence – Whether oral evidence can be allowed to discredit or contradict documentary evidence

EVIDENCE – Evaluation of evidence – Duty of the trial court to evaluate evidence – When the appellate Court may interfere with evaluation of evidence

EVIDENCE – Evaluation of evidence – Duty of the trial court to properly evaluate evidence – Need to place evidence adduced by both parties on an imaginary scale

EVIDENCE – Evaluation of evidence – Whether the appellate court can usurp the functions of trial court to evaluate evidence

EVIDENCE – Evidence given in a previous proceeding – Usefulness of evidence given in previous proceedings in a subsequent proceeding

EVIDENCE – EVIDENCE OF SOLE WITNESS – Whether or not a court can convict on evidence of a sole witness – What the court must consider before it can convict on evidence of a sole witness

EVIDENCE – Inadmissible evidence – When inadmissible evidence is wrongly admitted – Duty of the court to reject such evidence ex propio motu

EVIDENCE – MEDICAL EVIDENCE – Circumstances where medical evidence would be indispensable

EVIDENCE – OFFENCE OF STEALING – Ingredients the Prosecution Must Prove To Sustain Conviction for the offence of stealing

EVIDENCE – Onus of proof – On whom lies the onus of proof in Criminal Cases

EVIDENCE – Party to Civil Suit – Competence of a Party to Civil Suit to give evidence for his opponent

EVIDENCE – PLEADINGS – Bindingness of Pleadings on parties – When evidence is at variance with the pleadings – Effect of evidence at variance with pleadings

EVIDENCE – PLEADINGS – Effect of evidence led on unpleaded facts

EVIDENCE – PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Standard of proof in civil cases

EVIDENCE – Unchallenged evidence – Effect of failure to cross-examine a witness on material point

EVIDENCE – Unchallenged evidence – Need for the court seised of the proceedings to act upon unchallenged evidence:

EVIDENCE – Uncontroverted facts in an affidavit – Effect of unchallenged facts in affidavit

EVIDENCE – ADMISSIBILITY OF EVIDENCE – Appropriate time to object to the admissibility of evidence, effect of failure to do so:

EVIDENCE – ADMISSION/ADMITTED FACT(S) – When will a fact be deemed admitted; whether facts admitted need further proof

EVIDENCE – ADMISSION/ADMITTED FACT(S) – Whether admission/admitted facts need further proof; effect where the Court neglects/refuses to act on or advert to an admitted fact on a material issue

EVIDENCE – ADMISSION/ADMITTED FACT(S) – Whether admission/admitted facts need further proof

EVIDENCE – BEST EVIDENCE – What is the best evidence in criminal proceedings; Duty of Court thereto

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/ONUS OF PROOF  – Burden of proof in civil cases; Types of burden of proof in civil cases and whether same shifts

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/ONUS OF PROOF  – Position of the law as regards burden of proof where a plaintiff pleads possession of land in dispute and the defendant admits same but adds that the land was given to the plaintiff as a pledge

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/ONUS OF PROOF – Burden of proof on a claimant claiming ownership of land by gift; effect of failure to discharge same (Copy N28)

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/ONUS OF PROOF – Effect of failure to discharge the burden of proof placed on a party

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/ONUS OF PROOF – Burden on an arresting authority to prove the legality of the arrest and detention of an applicant in an action for enforcement of fundamental rights and when same will be held not to have been proved:

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/ONUS OF PROOF – Effect where an accused person fails to prove a fact within his exclusive knowledge

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/ONUS OF PROOF – On whom lies the onus of proof of custom

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/ONUS OF PROOF – Whether a plaintiff can rely on the weakness of the case of the defendant to prove his own case in an action for declaration of title

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proof in criminal cases and whether it shifts; when burden of proof will shift

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proof in criminal cases; how same is discharged

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proof in criminal cases; how same is discharged

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proving the defence of insanity

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proof in criminal cases; what does proof beyond reasonable doubt mean

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden of proof and standard of proof in criminal cases

EVIDENCE – CALLING OF WITNESS(ES) – Whether the prosecution is required to call every available eye or particular witnesses to secure a conviction

EVIDENCE – CALLING OF WITNESS(ES) – Whether the prosecution is required to call a specific number of witnesses to secure a conviction

EVIDENCE – CALLING OF WITNESSES – Whether an accused person has the right to dictate to the prosecution the witnesses to call or not to call

EVIDENCE – CAUSE OF DEATH – When the cause of death can be said to be the act of the accused

EVIDENCE – CAUSE OF DEATH – Whether the prosecution in a murder case must prove beyond reasonable doubt, a link between act of accused person and the resulting death

EVIDENCE – COMPETENCE OF A CHILD – When a court will be held to have rightly admitted and utilized the sworn evidence of a child

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict on a retracted confessional statement; conditions that must be satisfied before same can be done

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict solely on the confessional statement of an accused person

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Appropriate time to object to the admissibility of a confessional statement; effect of failure

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Duty of an accused person who retracted his confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Duty of court where an accused person raised a plea of non – est factum as to his confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Duty of the Court where a confessional statement is denied or retracted by an accused person

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Effect of a confessional statement admitted without objection

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Effect of an inducement, threat or promise on a confessional statement; Conditions to be satisfied for an inducement, threat or promise to make a confessional statement irrelevant and inadmissible

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Effect where the Court is satisfied that a confession is voluntary

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Instance(s) in which it will be safe to convict an accused based on his confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Meaning of Confession under the Evidence Act; whether an accused can be convicted on his confession alone:

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Meaning of confession/confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Position of the law on the admissibility or otherwise of confessional statements

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Position of the law where an accused gives oral evidence which is inconsistent with or contradicts the contents of his statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Position of the law where the confessional statement of an accused person is voluntary and true but contradicts his evidence in Court

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Proper procedure to be adopted by a trial Court where an accused person denies making a confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Purpose of the test for determining the truth of a confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – The position of the law on a retracted statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – What does the defence of non-est factum means when raised in relation to confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – When Court can rely on a confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a confessional statement becomes inadmissible because an accused person retracted or denied making it

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a confessional statement is the best proof of commission of an offence and whether an accused person can be convicted solely on it; whether non-observance of the judges rules affects the admissibility of a confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a confessional statement becomes inadmissible because an accused person retracted or denied making it

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict on a retracted confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict on a retracted confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a Court can convict on a voluntary confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict on a retracted confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict solely on the confessional statement of an accused person

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict solely on the confessional statement of an accused person

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict solely on the confessional statement of an accused person

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict solely on the confessional statement of an accused person

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether an accused person can be convicted based on his confession; Whether it is desirable to have some other evidence other than the confession

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether confession is the best form of evidence in a criminal trial

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether confession is the best form of evidence in a criminal trial

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether confession is the best form of evidence in a criminal trial

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether confession is the best evidence in criminal law; criteria for admissibility of same

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether conviction can be set aside solely because it was based entirely on a retracted confession

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether the retraction of a voluntary confessional statement renders it inadmissible; effect when a confession is satisfactorily proved

EVIDENCE – CONTRADICTION IN EVIDENCE – Attitude of Court to contradiction in the statement of an accused to the police and his testimony in Court

EVIDENCE – CONTRADICTION IN EVIDENCE – Nature of a contradictory statement/evidence

EVIDENCE – CONTRADICTION IN EVIDENCE – Nature of contradiction in evidence that would be fatal to a case or vitiate the decision of a trial Court

EVIDENCE – CORROBORATION/CORROBORATIVE EVIDENCE – Nature of corroborative evidence required to prove the commission of a crime

EVIDENCE – CORROBORATION/CORROBORATIVE EVIDENCE – Purpose of corroboration

EVIDENCE – CROSS-EXAMINATION – Effect of evidence that is not denied/challenged/discredited under cross-examination

EVIDENCE – CROSS-EXAMINATION – Effect of evidence that is not denied/challenged/discredited under cross-examination

EVIDENCE – CROSS-EXAMINATION – Effect of failure to cross-examine a witness on material point

EVIDENCE – DOCTRINE OF LAST SEEN – Application and validity of the doctrine of last seen

EVIDENCE – DOCTRINE OF LAST SEEN – Application of the doctrine of last seen; and duty on accused to give an explanation as to the death of a deceased where he is the last person seen with same

EVIDENCE – DOCTRINE OF LAST SEEN – What the doctrine of last seen entails; instances when the doctrine will be applicable

EVIDENCE – DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE – Whether for a document to have any evidential value it must be relevant and must correlate to the facts in issue

EVIDENCE – DYING DECLARATION – Meaning of a dying declaration and instance where the rule applicable to dying declaration will be inapplicable

EVIDENCE – DYING DECLARATION – What constitutes a dying declaration; requirements of the law in establishing same

EVIDENCE – DYING DECLARATION – What constitutes a dying declaration; requirements of the law in establishing same

EVIDENCE – ESTOPPEL BY CONDUCT – Instance of estoppel by conduct

EVIDENCE – ESTOPPEL PER REM JUDICATAM/RES JUDICATA – Meaning and conditions for a successful plea of res judicata; Instance(s) when the doctrine of res judicata will apply

EVIDENCE – ESTOPPEL PER REM JUDICATAM/RES JUDICATA – Meaning of parties in relation to estoppel per rem judicatam

EVIDENCE – ESTOPPEL PER REM JUDICATAM/RES JUDICATA – Meaning of privy (ies)

EVIDENCE – ESTOPPEL PER REM JUDICATAM/RES JUDICATA – Whether an issue of res judicata is a jurisdictional issue that can be raised anytime

EVIDENCE – ESTOPPEL PER REM JUDICATAM/RES JUDICATA – Whether the existence of the principle of res judicata is a question of fact

EVIDENCE – ESTOPPEL – Whether estoppel must be pleaded

EVIDENCE – EVALUATION OF EVIDENCE – Whether evaluation of evidence and ascription of probative value is a primary function of the trial Court; duty of the Court of Appeal as it relates to same

EVIDENCE – EVALUATION OF EVIDENCE – Whether evaluation of evidence and ascription of probative value is a primary function of the trial Court

EVIDENCE – EVALUATION OF EVIDENCE – Whether evaluation of evidence and ascription of probative value is a primary function of the trial Court; duty of the Court of Appeal as it relates to same

EVIDENCE – EVIDENCE OF A SINGLE WITNESS – Whether a court can convict on the evidence of a single witness

EVIDENCE – EVIDENCE OF A SINGLE WITNESS – Whether a court can convict on the evidence of a single witness

EVIDENCE – EVIDENCE OF A SINGLE WITNESS – Whether a court can convict on the evidence of a single witness

EVIDENCE – EVIDENCE OF AN EYE WITNESS – Whether evidence of eye witness is the best form of evidence; duty of the trial judge thereto

EVIDENCE – EVIDENCE OF WITNESS(ES) – Position of the law where a party wants to contradict a witness on matters as per his previous written statement

EVIDENCE – EXPERT OPINION/EVIDENCE – Position of the law with regard to expert opinion/evidence

EVIDENCE – HEARSAY EVIDENCE – Meaning of hearsay evidence; what constitutes hearsay evidence

EVIDENCE – IDENTIFICATION EVIDENCE – Circumstance under which the Court will accept and act on a visual identification

EVIDENCE – IDENTIFICATION EVIDENCE – Meaning of identification and whether there can be sufficient identification of a person by his voice

EVIDENCE – IDENTIFICATION EVIDENCE – Position of the law on identification evidence

EVIDENCE – IDENTIFICATION EVIDENCE – When identification evidence can be used to sustain a conviction

EVIDENCE – ILLITERATE JURAT – Whether the Illiterates Protection Law apply to statements recorded in criminal cases by the police

EVIDENCE – INCONSISTENCY RULE – Whether the inconsistency rule applies to a retracted confessional statement of an accused person

EVIDENCE – INCONSISTENCY RULE – Whether the inconsistency rule applies to a retracted confessional statement of an accused person

EVIDENCE – ISSUE ESTOPPEL – Whether for issue estoppel to arise all the parties in the previous suit must be the same in the present suit

EVIDENCE – JUDICIAL NOTICE – Duty of lower Courts to take judicial notice of relevant cases or decisions of apex Court

EVIDENCE – JUDICIAL NOTICE – Whether a Court has the power to take judicial notice of all the laws, enactments, and any subsidiary legislations made there under in any part of Nigeria

EVIDENCE – JUDICIAL NOTICE – Whether a court must take judicial notice of all the processes filed in a proceeding before it

EVIDENCE – MEDICAL EVIDENCE – Whether it is mandatory for the maker of a medical report to be present in Court to give evidence for the report to be admissible

EVIDENCE – MEDICAL EVIDENCE – Whether it is mandatory for the maker of a medical report to be present in Court to give evidence for the report to be admissible

EVIDENCE – PRESUMPTION OF CORRECTNESS – Whether the records of courts are presumed to be correct until they are successfully impugned

EVIDENCE – PRESUMPTION OF LAW – Presumption of law that any person born during the continuance of a valid marriage shall be presumed to be a child of that man; burden and standard of proof required to dislodge same

EVIDENCE – PRESUMPTION OF REGULARITY – Whether there is a presumption of regularity in favour of judicial acts; how to rebut such presumption:

EVIDENCE – PROOF BEYOND REASONABLE DOUBT – Meaning of proof beyond reasonable doubt

EVIDENCE – PROOF BEYOND REASONABLE DOUBT – Meaning/nature of proof beyond reasonable doubt

EVIDENCE – PROOF BEYOND REASONABLE DOUBT – Meaning/nature of proof beyond reasonable doubt

EVIDENCE – PROOF BEYOND REASONABLE DOUBT – The requirement of the law as regard proof beyond reasonable doubt

EVIDENCE – PROOF BEYOND REASONABLE DOUBT – The requirement of the law as regard proof beyond reasonable doubt

EVIDENCE – PROOF BEYOND REASONABLE DOUBT – The requirement of the law as regard proof beyond reasonable doubt

EVIDENCE – PROOF OF CUSTOM/CUSTOMARY LAW – Position of the law as regards proof of customary law in relation to oath taking in land matters

EVIDENCE – PROOF OF CUSTOM/CUSTOMARY LAW – Whether he who asserts a custom which has not been judicially noticed must prove same; effect of failure

EVIDENCE – PROOF – Methods of proof

EVIDENCE – PROOF – Ways of proving the commission of a crime; whether confessional statement is the best proof of a crime

EVIDENCE – TAINTED WITNESS – Whether the fact that a witness is a blood relation of the victim of a crime makes the witness a tainted witness

EVIDENCE – TRIAL WITHIN TRIAL – When will a trial within trial be conducted

EVIDENCE – UNCHALLENGED/UNCONTROVERTED EVIDENCE – Effect of an unchallenged/uncontroverted evidence

EVIDENCE, DAMAGES – Burden of Proof – On whom lies the burden of proving special damages: 

EVIDENCE, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Admissibility of documents – When documents are tendered and admitted without objection – Whether the party can raise objection on appeal

EVIDENCE, WORDS AND PHRASES – Meaning of “proof beyond reasonable doubt

FAMILY LAW

FAMILY LAW – PATERNITY OF A CHILD  – Position of the law with respect to proof of paternity of a child and dislodging the presumption of law with respect to the paternity of a child

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS – FAIR HEARING – Meaning of fair hearing

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Need for fair hearing to be invoked appropriately

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS – Right to fair hearing – The scope and applicability of the right of fair hearing – Whether right to fair hearing applicable to both judicial and quasi-judicial proceedings

GOVERNMENT

GOVERNMENT – ARMS OF GOVERNMENT – The three arms of government and their roles

GOVERNMENT – LOCAL GOVERNMENT – Duty of the Governor to preserve the existence of a democratically elected Local Government Councils

GOVERNMENT – LOCAL GOVERNMENT – Statutory provisions as to the tenure of office of a Local Government Council Chairman in Enugu State; whether the Governor of the State can extend the said tenure

INTERPLEADER

INTERPLEADER – Burden of proof in interpleader proceedings

INTERPLEADER – Interpleader summons procedureApplicability and parties therein

INTERPLEADER – Nature of Interpleader proceedings – Whether hearing of interpleader proceedings must be by oral or affidavit evidence

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – Alteration in procedural enactments – Retrospective nature of Alteration in procedural enactments – Effect of the 4th Alteration Act

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – LITERAL RULE OF INTERPRETATION – Fundamental principles of interpretation of statutes where the words used are clear and unambiguous

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – RULES OF INTERPRETATION OF CONSTITUTION – Approach Courts adopt in finding solutions to Constitutional questions in the course of interpretation

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – RULES OF INTERPRETATION OF CONSTITUTION – Rules governing the interpretation of Constitutional provisions

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – RULES OF INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – Guiding principles in interpretation of statutes or the Constitution

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – RULES OF INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – Position of the law where a particular word or phrase is defined in a statute

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – RULES OF INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – Guiding principles in interpretation of statutes

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – RULES OF INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – Position of the law where a particular word or phrase is defined in a statute

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – SECTION 183 OF THE 1999 CONSTITUTION – Interpretation of Section 183 of the 1999 Constitution as to whether it restrains a person not holding the office of Governor of a State from holding any other executive office/paid employment

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – SECTION 183 OF THE 1999 CONSTITUTION – Interpretation of Section 183 of the 1999 Constitution as to whether it restrains a person not holding the office of Governor of a State from holding any other executive office/paid employment

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTES – Amendment of an enactment – Whether Amendment of an enactment is retrospective or prospective – Distinction between retrospective and prospective enactment

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTES – Artificial entities, including governmental offices – Whether all acts are prohibited except specifically permitted

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTES – Cardinal rules of construction of written instruments – Need to give statutes grammatical and ordinary sense of the words used:

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTES – Need to confine to ordinary meaning which the words of the statute can reasonably bear:

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTES – Principles governing interpretation of statutes – Need to apply its natural meaning

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTES – Principles governing interpretation of statutes: 

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTES – Principles guiding – Where the words of the provisions of a statute are clear and unambiguous – Need to be given their plain, ordinary and grammatical meaning without qualification: 

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTES – Rules of interpretation – Expression unius est exclusion – Application of Expression unius est exclusion

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTES – The Mischief Rule – Applicability of mischief rule: 

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTES – The three Rules of interpretation of statutes:

JUDGMENT AND ORDER

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – Consequential order – Nature and Meaning of:

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – Consequential order – When can be made – Whether a consequential order can be made against a stranger:

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – Effect of a judgment delivered by a panel where one of them was not present at the hearing of the case

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – Effect of unappealed findings or decisions of court:

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – Final Decision – Meaning of Final Decision – Whether leave required to appeal against Final Decision

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – Judgment of Court -Extraneous materials – Whether the court can consider extraneous materials to arrive at its decision

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – Perverse findings – Instances where the decision of court would be regarded as perverse

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – STAY OF EXECUTION PENDING APPEAL –  Whether stay of execution pending determination of appeal remains valid after the determination of the appeal

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – Unappealed Findings or Decision – Effect of unappealed findings or decisions of court

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF COST- Principle guiding an award of costs:

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF INTEREST – Distinction between award of interest pre-judgment and award of interest on a judgment-debt

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF INTEREST – Instance(s) in which award of pre-judgment interest in a claim arising from a banker-customer relationship will be granted

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF INTEREST – Instance(s) in which award of pre-judgment interest in a claim arising from a banker-customer relationship will be granted

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF INTEREST – Requirements of the law as regards award of pre-judgment interest

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF INTEREST – Whether the award of post-judgment interest is discretionary; principles guiding the exercise of such discretion

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF INTEREST- Instance where an appellate court will be held to have wrongly interfered with an award of interest made by a lower court

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF INTEREST- Instance where an award of interest will be made

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF INTEREST- Legal basis for the award of interest

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF INTEREST- The principles governing the award of interests

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF INTEREST- Where the Court derives its power to award interest

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – CONCURRING JUDGMENT – Whether a concurring judgment forms part of the lead judgment

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – CONSEQUENTIAL ORDER – Nature and purpose of a consequential order

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – CONSEQUENTIAL ORDER – Whether courts have the power to grant a relief not specifically asked for as a consequential order

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – DECLARATORY JUDGMENT/ORDER – Whether a declaratory judgment is complete in itself:

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – DELIVERY OF JUDGMENT – Effect of a judgment delivered by a panel where one of them was not present at the hearing of the case

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ERROR/MISTAKE IN JUDGMENT – Whether every error/mistake/slip in a judgment will result in a judgment being set aside

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ERROR/MISTAKE IN JUDGMENT – Whether every error/mistake in a judgment will result in a judgment being set aside; circumstance where error/mistake in a judgment will result in a judgment being set aside

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ERROR/MISTAKE IN JUDGMENT – Whether every error/mistake in a judgment will result in a judgment being set aside; condition for error/mistake to ground the setting aside of a judgment and duty of a party to demonstrate that a miscarriage of justice was occasioned

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – FUNCTUS OFFICIO – Whether a Court/Court of co-ordinate jurisdiction has the competence to entertain a matter that was dismissed by it or a Court of co-ordinate jurisdiction

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – JUDGMENT OF COURT – Binding effect of a decision of Court not appealed against; effect of the dismissal of a case

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – JUDGMENT OF COURT – Instances where a defendant who did not call evidence in a matter would be entitled to judgment

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – JUDGMENT OF COURT – Whether a judgment/order of court remains valid until set aside

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – JUDGMENT OF COURT – Whether a judgment/order of court remains valid until set aside

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – NULL AND VOID JUDGMENT/ORDER – Effect of a null and void judgment/proceeding; whether an appeal is necessary for the purpose of setting aside a null order

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ORDER OF COURT – Effect of a valid and subsisting order of court

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ORDER OF COURT – Proper order a Court would make where there is an incomplete record before it

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ORDER OF COURT – Proper order a Court would make where there is an incomplete record before it

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ORDER OF COURT – Whether the court can make an order against or in favour of a person who is not a party to a suit

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ORDER OF DISMISSAL – Effect of an order of dismissal

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – PERVERSE DECISION – Duty of a party who complains that the judgment of a lower Court is perverse

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – PERVERSE DECISION – Effect of failure of a party to prove that the concurrent findings of the lower Courts are perverse

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – PERVERSE DECISION – When a decision of Court is said to be perverse

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – REASON FOR JUDGMENT – Whether an appellate Court is concerned with the correctness of the decision of the Court from which the appeal it is handling has emanated and not the reasons given

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – WRITING OF JUDGMENT – When failure of a trial Judge to state the point(s) or issue(s) for determination in the judgment as provided for in Section 308 of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act will not render the judgment a nullity

JUDGMENT AND ORDER, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Order of Re-trial – Instances where order for retrial can be made

JUDGMENT AND ORDERS – Non-suit – Purport of non-suit – When non-suit can be entered

JUDGMENT AND ORDERS – Order of Retrial – When Order of Retrial can be made

JUDGMENT AND ORDERS – Retrial – When Supreme Court may grant an order for retrial – Principles governing order for retrial: 

JUDGMENT AND ORDERS – Ruling on interlocutory application – Need for the court to be circumspect to avoid pre-judgment: 

JUDGMENT OF COURT – When can a judgment/decision said to be judicious

JUDICIAL REVIEW

JUDICIAL REVIEW – Certiorari – When certiorari can be granted

JUDICIAL REVIEW – Certiorari – Where Certiorari lies to – Jurisdiction to entertain Certiorari – Effect of Want of jurisdiction

JURISDICTION

JURISDICTION – Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court – Whether the Supreme Court has jurisdiction to hear appeals directly from High Courts

JURISDICTION – Fundamental nature of – Whether could be raised at any time and for the first time at Supreme Court:

JURISDICTION – Fundamental nature of jurisdiction – Effect of absence of jurisdiction on proceedings of court

JURISDICTION – Fundamental nature of jurisdiction – When and how to raise the issue of jurisdiction

JURISDICTION – Jurisdiction of court – When can be exercised:

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Agency of the Federal Government – Whether presence of an Agency of the Federal Government in a suit automatically confers jurisdiction on the Federal High Court

JURISDICTION – Jurisdiction of the Federal High Court – Simple Contracts – Whether Jurisdiction of the Federal High Court covers simple contracts and or negligence

JURISDICTION – Lack of jurisdiction – Liberty to raise jurisdiction at any stage of the proceedings, even on appeal by the parties:

JURISDICTION – Meaning and nature of jurisdiction: 

JURISDICTION – Meaning of jurisdiction – Action commenced in a wrong court – Effect on jurisdiction of the court: 

JURISDICTION – When a court assumes jurisdiction without jurisdiction – Effect of lack of jurisdiction on the decision: 

JURISDICTION – When jurisdiction can be raised – Whether the defendant must give notice of intention to challenge jurisdiction of court in statement of defence: 

JURISDICTION – Attitude/Approach of Court where the issue of jurisdiction is raised in an appeal filed out of time

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE COURT OF APPEAL – Exclusive appellate jurisdiction of the Court of Appeal

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE COURT OF APPEAL – Statutory provision as to the exclusive appellate jurisdiction of the Court of Appeal

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE COURT OF APPEAL – Statutory provision as to the exclusive appellate jurisdiction of the Court of Appeal

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE FEDERAL HIGH COURT – What determines the jurisdiction of the Federal High Court to entertain a matter

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Whether the jurisdiction of the Federal High Court extends to the tort of negligence

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Whether the Federal High Court has jurisdiction to determine matters brought under the Fatal Accident Law CAP 43 Laws of Northern Nigeria 1963, applicable to Plateau State

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Whether the Federal High Court has jurisdiction to determine matters brought under the Fatal Accident Law CAP 43 Laws of Northern Nigeria 1963, applicable to Plateau State

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Whether the Federal High Court has jurisdiction to entertain matters on enforcement of fundamental human rights involving an agency of the Federal Government:

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE STATE HIGH COURT  – Jurisdiction of the High Court with respect to land

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE STATE/FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Scope of the jurisdiction of the State and Federal High Courts with respect to enforcement of fundamental rights

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE STATE/FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Whether the Federal and State High Court have concurrent jurisdiction to entertain matters on enforcement of fundamental rights

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE STATE/FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Whether the Federal and State High Court have concurrent jurisdiction to entertain matters on enforcement of fundamental rights

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE STATE/FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Whether the Federal and State High Court have concurrent jurisdiction to entertain matters on enforcement of fundamental rights

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE STATE/FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Whether the Federal and State High Court have concurrent jurisdiction to entertain matters on enforcement of fundamental rights

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE STATE/FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Whether the Federal and State High Court have concurrent jurisdiction to entertain matters on enforcement of fundamental rights

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE SUPREME COURT – Whether the Supreme Court has jurisdiction to hear appeals directly from decisions of the High Court

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE SUPREME COURT – Whether the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court extends to pre-election or election related matters

JURISDICTION – TERRITORIAL JURISDICTION – What territorial jurisdiction implies and how same is conferred

JURISDICTION – TERRITORIAL JURISDICTION – When will a Court have territorial jurisdiction to hear and determine a case

JUSTICE

JUSTICE – Substantive justice – Attitude of court to technicalities

 JUSTICE – TECHNICAL JUSTICE – Attitude of Court to technical justice

LABOUR LAW

LABOUR LAW – Termination of contract of employment – Duty of the court thereof when the employer alleges misconduct:

LABOUR LAW – MASTER/SERVANT RELATIONSHIP – When the termination of the employment of an employee by the employer in a master/servant relationship will be wrongful; remedy available for wrongful termination

LABOUR LAW – MASTER/SERVANT RELATIONSHIP – Whether a master can terminate the contract of the servant anytime

LAND LAW

LAND LAW – “Customary right of occupancy” – Meaning of Customary right of occupancy

LAND LAW – Admissibility of extrinsic evidence – Purport and usefulness of extrinsic evidence:

LAND LAW – Alienation of family – Conditions for a valid sale of family land under Yoruba law and custom – Whether Knowledge of a transaction constitutes valid family consent

LAND LAW – DAMAGES – When damages are awarded in claim for Declaration of title – Need to grant ancillary claim for injunction

LAND LAW – Declaration of title to land – Duty of court to exercise its discretion to grant title to land judicially:

LAND LAW – Declaration of title to land – Need for the Plaintiff to succeed in a claim for declaration of title to land on the strength of his case

LAND LAW – Dispute relating to land matters – When Sharia Court can entertain:

LAND LAW – Identity of land in dispute – Duty of the party claimant to prove identity of land – Effect of Failure to prove identity of land

LAND LAW – OWNERSHIP OF LAND IN BENIN – In whom Ownership of Land in Benin is vested – Right of Oba to Allocate land in Benin

LAND LAW – PLEADINGS – Issues in pleadings – Bindingness of pleadings on parties – When identity of land is not in issue – Needlessness to identify:

LAND LAW – Possession and title – Whether possession can be liken to title 

LAND LAW – Possession of land – When two parties claim possession of same piece of land: 

LAND LAW – REVOCATION OF RIGHT OF OCCUPANCY – Whether there can be a valid revocation of a right of occupancy where the holder has not been served with a revocation notice – Required method of service of Notice of Revocation

LAND LAW – The doctrine of Standing-by – The purport and nature of standing-by

LAND LAW – Trespass to land – Duty on a party who claims damages in an action for trespass to land to prove ownership of the land

LAND LAW – Trespass to land – When the tenant in possession can sue – When the landlord can sue for injuries to the property

LAND LAW – Trespass to land – Whether Trespass to land actionable at the instance of the person in possession:

LAND LAW – Trespass to land- Action by absolute owner for trespass against a person alleged to be in possession – What the owner needs to prove to succeed

LAND LAW – BONA FIDE PURCHASER FOR VALUE – Who is a bona fide purchaser for value and when the defence of bona fide purchaser for value without notice will/will not avail a party

LAND LAW – CONTRACT OF SALE OF LAND/PROPERTY – The essential ingredients that constitute a valid contract of sale of land

LAND LAW – FAMILY PROPERTY/LAND – Definition of family property

LAND LAW – LIS PENDENS – Instance(s) where the doctrine of lis pendens will not apply

LAND LAW – LIS PENDENS – Instance(s) where the doctrine of lis pendens will not apply

LAND LAW – LIS PENDENS – Meaning of the doctrine of lis pendens; conditions for its application

LAND LAW – LIS PENDENS – Meaning of the doctrine of lis pendens; conditions for its application

LAND LAW – LIS PENDENS – What is the purpose of the doctrine of lis pendens

LEGAL PRACTITIONER

LEGAL PRACTITIONER – COUNSEL – Mistake of counsel – Whether mistake of counsel should be visited on his client – Attitude of Court to mistake of counsel

LEGAL PRACTITIONER – Signing of court process – Duty of counsel or appellant to sign court process – When court process is signed in the name of a law firm – Effect of court process signed in the name of a law firm on the jurisdiction of the court

LEGAL PRACTITIONER – CONDUCT OF COUNSEL – Duty of counsel not to conduct himself in a manner that may obstruct delay or adversely affect the administration of justice

LEGAL PRACTITIONER – DUTY OF COUNSEL – Duty of Counsel as a minister in the temple of justice and an officer of the Court

LEGAL PRACTITIONER – DUTY OF COUNSEL – Duty of Counsel as a minister in the temple of justice and an officer of the Court:

LEGAL PRACTITIONER – DUTY OF COUNSEL – Duty of Counsel as a minister in the temple of justice and an officer of the Court

LEGAL PRACTITIONER – LEGAL PRACTITIONERS DISCIPLINARY COMMITTEE – Instance(s) where the Chairman of the Legal Practitioners Committee will not disqualify himself from a disciplinary proceeding:

LEGAL PRACTITIONER – LEGAL PRACTITIONERS DISCIPLINARY COMMITTEE – Effect of variation in the composition of the Legal Practitioners Disciplinary Committee members present during and/or throughout the proceedings:

LEGAL PRACTITIONER – LEGAL REPRESENTATION – Whether a lawyer is permitted to act as counsel and witness for his client at the same time

LEGISLATION

LEGISLATION – ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE ACT/LAW – Whether the Administration of Criminal Justice Act has a retrospective effect

LEGISLATURE

LEGISLATURE – LEGISLATIVE POWER – Power of the National Assembly and State House of Assembly to make/amend laws; power of the Courts where a statute is enacted in breach of the Constitution

LEGISLATURE – STATE HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY – Power of a State House of Assembly to make laws for the peace, order and good government of a State

LEGISLATURE – STATE HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY – Power of a State House of Assembly to prescribe remuneration for certain categories of public officers and political office holders

LIMITATION LAW

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION LAW – Nature, purport/essence of Limitation Law

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION PERIOD – Limitation period on action founded on contract; effect of bringing an action outside the limitation period

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION PERIOD – Limitation period on action founded on contract; effect of bringing an action outside the limitation period

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION PERIOD – Limitation period on action founded on contract; effect of bringing an action outside the limitation period

LIMITATION LAW – STATUTE OF LIMITATION – Whether leasehold is a matter in the domain of customary law such that same is exempted from the application of a statute of limitation; effect of an action filed outside a period envisaged under a statute of limitation

MAXIMS

LEGAL MAXIMS – “Res Inter Alios Acta” – Nature, Meaning and operation of Res Inter Alios Acta

MAXIM – EX DOLOMALO – Meaning of ex dolomalo

MAXIM – EX TURPICAUSA NON ORITURACTIO – Meaning of ex turpicausa non orituractio

MORTGAGES

MORTGAGES – Equitable Charge – Nature of Equitable Charge –  Meaning and how Equitable Charge can be created

MORTGAGES – Equitable Mortgages – How equitable mortgage can be created:

MORTGAGES – Foreclosure – Whether foreclosure an appropriate remedy for equitable mortgagee:

NATIVE LAW & CUSTOM

NATIVE LAW AND CUSTOM – Property bought with rent derived from communal property – Communal Ownership of property bought with rent derived from communal property

NOTABLE PRONOUNCEMENT: LEGAL PRACTITIONER – Duty of counsel – Duty to help the court reduce the period of delay in determining cases by avoiding unnecessary preliminary objections:

OFFENCES

OFFENCE OF RAPE  – Statutory provision prescribing the ingredients and punishment for the offence of rape

PLEADINGS

PLEADINGS – Admission in pleadings – Whether admission needs further proof – Need for party to lead evidence to prove unadmitted facts

PLEADINGS – Amendment of pleadings – Amendment sought to bring the pleadings in line with evidence elicited during trial- Need to grant in the interest of justice: 

PLEADINGS – AMENDMENT OF PLEADINGS – Need for amendment of pleadings to be allowed – Principles Guiding grant or refusal of amendment – Duty on court not to punish parties

PLEADINGS – Amendment of pleadings – Principles guiding the discretionary power of Court to grant or refuse an application for amendment of pleadings or Court processes

PLEADINGS – Amendment of pleadings – The basic principle governing the granting of leave to amend:

PLEADINGS – Amendment of pleadings – When an amendment can be granted – Need to be granted at any stage of the proceedings: 

PLEADINGS – Amendment of pleadings after evidence – Essence of amending pleadings after evidence – Whether amendment can be granted after evidence: 

PLEADINGS – Bindingness of pleadings on parties – Need for parties before the superior courts to set out their cases as clearly as possible in their pleadings so as to avoid any element of surprise:

PLEADINGS – Bindingness of pleadings on parties – Whether parties can set up in court a case which is at variance with their pleadings

PLEADINGS – Bindingness on parties – Effect of evidence not supported by pleadings:

PLEADINGS – Bindingness on Parties and court – Duty of the Court to adjudicate on matters raised by the parties in their pleadings: 

PLEADINGS – Conditions precedent – Needlessness of Plaintiff to plead fulfilment of Conditions precedent – Duty of the Defendant to plead noncompliance with Conditions precedent

PLEADINGS – SETTLEMENT OF PLEADINGS – What Counsel should bear in mind while drafting pleadings

PLEADINGS – Statement of claim – When discloses no cause of action – Whether the defendant will be entitled to move the court to have the case dismissed without any answer on questions of fact from the defendant or respondent: 

PLEADINGS – The importance of pleadings – Need for pleadings to be sufficient, comprehensive and accurate

PLEADINGS – Traverse in pleadings – Effect of the traverse “Defendant is not in a position to admit or deny”

POLICE

POLICE – DUTY OF POLICE – Duty/Role of the police where the remedy of a nominal complainant is in a civil suit for damages for breach of contract or for an order for specific performance

POLICE – DUTY OF POLICE – Whether the duty of the police includes the settlement of civil dispute or debt collection

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – “Waiver or acquiescence” – What waiver or acquiescence presupposes – When a party can be deemed to have waived or acquiesced over his right

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT PROCESS – What amounts to abuse of Court process and when a claim of abuse of court process cannot be sustained

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Abuse of Court Process – Whether filing of two applications in different Courts at the same time constitutes abuse of Court process

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – Instance of an abuse of court process and the effect of same

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ADDRESS OF COUNSEL – Whether address or argument of counsel can take the place of evidence

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Alternative Claim or Relief – Conditions for granting an alternative claim or relief

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Alternative Claim or Relief – Conditions for granting alternative claim or relief

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Doctrine of “Standing-by” – Effect of standing-by on the party who elects to sit down and watch his legal battle fought for him 

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Documents attached to unadopted Written Statement on oath – Whether the Court can rely on a document attached to unadopted Written Statement on oath

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Filing Fees – Lack of Filing Fees – Effect of Lack of Filing Fees on jurisdiction of CourtWhen Filing Fees is alleged to be underassessed – Onus on the party who alleges to prove

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Legal Personality – How legal personality can be challenged:

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Preliminary Objection – Whether a party can argue Preliminary Objection in his brief without filing a separate notice

 PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Duty of Court not to determine a substantive issue while determining a preliminary objection

 PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Duty of Court not to determine a substantive issue while determining a preliminary objection

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Signing of Court Process – Need of Court Process to be signed by a legal practitioner – Effect of a court process signed in the name of a law firm

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – The dichotomy between “reasonable cause of action and locus standI”

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Written Statement on oath – Effect of a written statement on oath which has not been formally adopted by a prospective or potential witness

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – Instance(s) when abuse of Court process will arise

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – Instance of an abuse of court process and the effect of same

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – Meaning of frivolous action and attitude of Court to same; power of Court to dismiss suits which are frivolous, vexatious or constitutes an abuse of Court process

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – What constitutes abuse of Court process

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – What constitutes abuse of Court process

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – What constitutes abuse of Court process

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – What constitutes abuse of Court process:

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – Whether failure to obtain leave to appeal where same is required amounts to an abuse of Court process; effect of same

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ACADEMIC OR HYPOTHETICAL QUESTION(S)/ISSUES/SUIT/EXERCISE – When is an appeal or a suit academic; attitude of Court to academic/hypothetical issues or question

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ACADEMIC OR HYPOTHETICAL QUESTION(S)/ISSUES/SUIT/EXERCISE – Meaning and nature of hypothetical/academic exercise/question/issue:

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ACADEMIC OR HYPOTHETICAL QUESTION(S)/ISSUES/SUIT/EXERCISE – Attitude of Courts to academic/hypothetical issues or questions

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ACADEMIC OR HYPOTHETICAL QUESTION(S)/ISSUES/SUIT/EXERCISE – Attitude of Courts to academic/hypothetical issues or questions

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ADJOURNMENT – Whether the grant or refusal of an application for adjournment is at the discretion of Court and how such discretion should be exercised

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – APPLICATION FOR ADJOURNMENT – Effect of an application for adjournment that has no backing of law

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – APPLICATION(S)/MOTION(S) – Whether Court must determine/consider every application brought before it

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – CONSISTENCY IN PRESENTATION OF A CASE – Whether a party must be consistent in stating and proving their case

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – DELAY – Whether a party can be allowed to benefit from the delay he caused

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – DELAY – Whether a party can be allowed to benefit from the delay he caused

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – DOCTRINE OF LIS PENDENS – Whether the doctrine of lis pendens applies to every suit

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – DOCTRINE OF LIS PENDENS – Application of the doctrine of lis pendens

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – DOCTRINE OF LIS PENDENS – Application of the doctrine of lis pendens

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – DOCTRINE OF LIS PENDENS – Purport of the doctrine of lis pendens

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – DOCTRINE OF LIS PENDENS – Whether the doctrine of lis pendens applies to every suit

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – DOCTRINE OF LIS PENDENS – Whether the doctrine of lis pendens applies to every suit

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – DOCTRINE OF LIS PENDENS – Whether the doctrine of lis pendens applies to every suit

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – FRONTLOADING – Rationale for frontloading processes; whether failure to comply with the rules for frontloading is a mere irregularity

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT (ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURE) RULES – Whether the Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules purport to confer jurisdiction on any Court:

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT (ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURE) RULES – Instance where the incorporation of the facts contained in an affidavit in support of an originating motion as grounds for the relief sought will be held to have complied with the provisions of the Fundamental Rights Enforcement Procedure Rules

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – HEARING NOTICE – Duty of Court to ensure/ascertain service of hearing notice on parties absent in court

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – HEARING NOTICE – Effect of failure to serve hearing notice

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – HEARING – What hearing entails; when a hearing will be said to have been on the merits

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ISSUE OF JURISDICTION – Fundamental nature of the issue of jurisdiction; whether the issue of jurisdiction must first be determined by the Court once it is raised

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ISSUE OF JURISDICTION – Importance of resolving the issue of jurisdiction once it is raised

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ISSUE OF JURISDICTION – When can the issue of jurisdiction be raised; whether same must be determined first:

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Effect of the success of a preliminary objection to the hearing of an appeal

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Aim/purpose/essence of a preliminary objection; effect of same:

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Best procedure where the purpose of an objection is merely to challenge the competence of some of the grounds of Appeal and not the competence of the entire appeal

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Procedure which a respondent intending to raise a preliminary objection must follow; effect of non-compliance

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Purpose and effect of a preliminary objection; need for Courts to determine same first

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION- Effect of ground(s) of objection in respect of which no argument(s) was/were proffered

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRE-TRIAL CONFERENCE – Whether the court can at the pre-trial stage make appropriate decisions with regards to admission of fact

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – RECORD OF COURT PROCEEDINGS – Whether a court is entitled to look at the record in its possession to make use of the information contained in it

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – SIGNING OF COURT PROCESS(ES) – Effect of a court process signed in the name of a law firm

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – SIGNING OF COURT PROCESS(ES) – Effect of a court process signed in the name of a law firm; whether same can be amended

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – SIGNING OF COURT PROCESS(ES) – Effect of a court process signed in the name of a law firm

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – SIGNING OF COURT PROCESS(ES) – Effect of an improperly signed Court process(es)

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – SUBSTITUTED SERVICE – Whether substituted service must be executed in the exact manner stated in the Court order; effect of failure

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – TECHNICALITIES – Attitude of court to technicalities

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – WAIVER OF RIGHT – When a party is deemed to have waived his right

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE, COURT – Discretion to extend the periods prescribed for doing an act – How Discretion exercised when the negligence or inadvertence is of his counsel

PROFESSIONAL ETHIC

PROFESSIONAL ETHICS – Legal Practitioner – Responsibility of a lawyer under Rule 1 of the Rules of Professional Ethics, 2007Duty to uphold and observe the rule of law, promote and foster the course of justice, maintain a high standard of professional conduct, and shall not engage in any conduct which is unbecoming of a legal practitioner

PROPERTY LAW

PROPERTY LAW – ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATE – WILL – Order of succession by male children – Effect of disclaimer of life interests in a will

PUBLIC OFFICER

PUBLIC OFFICER – PUBLIC OFFICERS PROTECTION ACT – Limitation period for bringing an action against a public officer; effect of failure to institute an action within the limitation period and its exception

PUBLIC OFFICER – PUBLIC OFFICERS PROTECTION ACT – Limitation period for bringing an action against a public officer; effect of failure to institute an action against a public officer within the limitation period

PUBLIC SERVICE – PUBLIC SERVANT – The position of the law as regards a public servant in the established pensionable cadre of the Federal/State Public Service

RES JUDICATA

RES JUDICATA – Nature of res judicata:

SHIPPING

SHIPPING AND ADMIRALTY – ARREST OF A SHIP – Condition(s) that must be established to succeed in an action for wrongful arrest of a ship

SHIPPING AND ADMIRALTY – ARREST OF A SHIP – Provision of the law on the arrest of a ship; purpose of an arrest

SHIPPING AND ADMIRALTY – ARREST OF A SHIP – Whether claim for damages for wrongful arrest or detention of a ship is a claim for special damages which must be specially pleaded and strictly proved

SHIPPING AND ADMIRALTY – ARREST OF A SHIP – Whether claim for damages for arrest of a ship is a claim for special damages which must be particularized and proved; effect of failure thereof

SHIPPING AND ADMIRALTY – ARREST OF A SHIP – Who can sue and be sued in an action for wrongful arrest or detention of a ship

STATUTE

STATUTE – Long title – Usefulness of Long title for the purpose of interpretation

STATUTES – Interpretation of statutes – Rules governing interpretation of statutes

STATUTES – Repealed legislation – Retrospective effect of retained/reenacted sections of a repealed legislation – Need for the reenacted provisions to have retrospective effect:

STATUTES – Section 2 (a) of the Public Officers’ Protection Act – The intendment of Section 2 (a) of the Public Officers’ Protection Act

TORT

TORT – Duty of care – Duty of Care Imposed by law on those handling firearms

TORT – Libel – What the Plaintiff must prove to succeed in claim for libel

TORT – Tortuous Liability of a company

TORT – DEFAMATION – Evolution of the law of criminal defamation and its abolition in some countries

TORT – TORT CLAIM – Definition of tort as a civil wrong; classifications of civil wrong:

TORT – TORT CLAIM – Nature and purpose of a tort claim; differences between a tort and a crime:

WILLS & PROBATES

WILLS AND PROBATE – VALIDITY OF A WILL – Requirements of the Law as regards the validity/genuineness of a will and the proof of same

WORDS AND PHRASES

WORDS AND PHRASES – “Allocutus” – Meaning of Allocutus

WORDS AND PHRASES – “Issue” – Meaning of issue

WORDS AND PHRASES – “May” – Discretionary and mandatory use of “may”

WORDS AND PHRASES – “Waiver” – Meaning of waive

WORDS AND PHRASES – “Counterfeit” – Meaning of counterfeit

WORDS AND PHRASES – “Probable consequence of an act” – Meaning of Probable consequence of an act

WORDS AND PHRASES – “Shall” – Meaning, use and application of:

WORDS AND PHRASES – “Void” – Meaning of void – Whether an act that is void ab initio needs to be set aside

WORDS AND PHRASES – CONSPIRACY – Meaning and nature of conspiracy – Whether agreement must be established to secure conviction for conspiracy

WORDS AND PHRASES – Distinction between a Judgement which a court is not competent to make and one which competent but wrong in law or in fact:

WORDS AND PHRASES – Distinction between a Judgement which a court is not competent to make and one which competent but wrong in law or in fact:

WORDS AND PHRASES – Laches – Meaning of laches 

WORDS AND PHRASES – Locus classicusMeaning of Locus classicus

WORDS AND PHRASES – Negligence – Meaning of Negligence

WORDS AND PHRASES – “ELECTION” – Meaning of “election”

WORDS AND PHRASES – “JURISDICTION” – Meaning of the word “jurisdiction”

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