Skip to content

2021 CASES & PRINCIPLES

ALL PROGRESSIVES CONGRESS (APC) & ANOR v. GODWIN NOGHEGHASE OBASEKI & ORS

TUNDE BALOGUN v. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA

ABDULLAHI MUSTAPHA BERENDE v. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA

PROFESSOR ANGO ABDULLAHI & ORS v. MALLAM NASIR EL-RUFAI & ORS

ACCESS BANK PLC v. MR. A.N.C. ONWULIRI

MR. MOSES OLAYIWOLA ADEGBANKE v. DR. TOYIN OJELABI & ORS

PRINCE ADEBOLA A. ADESEMOWO v. PRINCE MUSHAFAU OMOWALE ADEMOLA KASSIM & ORS

RT. HONOURABLE IGO AGUMA v. ALL PROGRESSIVES CONGRESS & ORS

P.C. IMO AKPAKPAN v. THE STATE

ALL PROGRESSIVES CONGR & ORS v. ENUGU STATE INDEPENDENT ELECTORAL COMMISSION & ORS

CLEMENT AVIOMOH v. THE COMMISSIONER OF POLICE & ORS

MR. JERRY CHUNG BOT & ORS v. JOS ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION PLC

CAPPA & D’ALBERTO (NIGERIA) PLC v. NIGERIA DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION (Liquidator Of IVORY MERCHANT BANK (NIG.) LIMITED)

AMAOGE CHUKWU v. THE STATE

CITEC INTERNATIONAL ESTATES LTD & ORS v. JOSIAH OLUWOLE FRANCIS & ORS

SIRAJO MUHAMMED DONDOS v. THE STATE

AYI EMOKPAE v. STANBIC IBTC PENSION MANAGERS LTD

EDIKE ENEBELI v. THE STATE

ENYIBROS FOOD PROCESSING COMPANY (NIG) LTD & ANOR v. NDIC & ANOR

OLU CHARLES O. FALUYI & ORS v. NIGERIAN UNION OF TEACHERS & ORS

GABRIEL GBENOBA, ESQ v. LEGAL PRACTITIONERS DISCIPLINARY COMMITTEE & ANOR

IDACHABA & ORS v. UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, MAKURDI & ORS

IDACHABA & ORS v. UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, MAKURDI & ORS

IFEANYI IHIM v. CYRIL MADUAGWU & ANOR

EYITAYO OLAYINKA JEGEDE & ANOR v. INDEPENDENT NATIONAL ELECTORAL COMMISSION (INEC)

ABBAS JIBRIN v. THE STATE

ZAHARADEEN JUNAIDU v. THE STATE

PRINCE MUSAFAU OMOWALE ADERINOLA KASSIM v. PRINCE SALIU ADEBISI SADIKU & 2 ORS

PRINCE MUSAFAU OMOWALE ADERINOLA KASSIM v. PRINCE SALIU ADEBISI SADIKU & 2 ORS

IDOWU MAKANJUOLA v. THE STATE

OLAYORI MUYIDEEN, ESQ. v. NIGERIAN BAR ASSOCIATION & ANOR

LAWALI NASIRU v. THE STATE

AMAECHI NJOKU v. THE STATE

OKEY JIM NWAGBARA v. JADCOM LIMITED

CHIEF EDMUND OBI v. CHIKEZIE UZOEWULU

DR. STEPHEN ADI ODEY v. CHIEF JOHN ALAGA & ORS

ANDREW OGBOKA v. THE STATE

CHIEF ALHAJI MUSAFAU OJIKUTU & ORS v. CHIEF WAHABI ADIFA KUTI & ORS

LENEE OKERE v. THE INSPECTOR GENERAL OF POLICE

ENAJIKE OKEREMUTE v. THE STATE

HON. FRANCIS ALUU OKO & ANOR v. HON. ATTORNEY-GENERAL OF EBONYI STATE

OPTIMUM CONSTRUCTION & PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT LIMITED v. AKE SHAREHOLDINGS LIMITED

PILLARS (NIG) LTD v. WILLIAM KOJO DESBORDES & ANOR

THE REGISTERED TRUSTEES OF APOSTOLIC CHURCH OF CHRIST v. THE REGISTERED TRUSTEES OF GRACE CHURCH OF CHRIST

HUSSAINI SAMA’ILA v. THE STATE

ELDER DR. FRIDAY SANI (MAKAMA) v. KOGI STATE HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY & ORS

THE STATE v. ANDREW YANGA

GODWIN EGBE UTTO v. THE STATE

CHIMENEM WOWEM v. THE STATE

ACTION – CAUSE(S) OF ACTION – Definition of cause of action

ACTION – CAUSE(S) OF ACTION – How the Court determines the date a cause of action arose

ACTION – CAUSE(S) OF ACTION – Meaning of “right”; position of the law on accrual of right and accrual of cause of action

ACTION – CAUSE(S) OF ACTION – Position of the law on accrual of right and accrual of cause of action

ACTION – CIVIL ACTION – Attitude of Court to the use of criminal law machinery for getting reliefs in civil disputes

ACTION – CLAIM(S)/RELIEF(S)- Whether parties and Court are bound by the reliefs claimed; duty of Court not to grant reliefs not claimed

ACTION – CONDITION PRECEDENT – Importance of fulfilling condition(s) precedent to the assumption of jurisdiction by Court

ACTION – CONDITION PRECEDENT – Importance of fulfilling condition(s) precedent to the assumption of jurisdiction by Court

ACTION – DECLARATION OF RIGHT – Whether Court can make a declaration of right whether or not any consequential relief is claimed

ACTION – DECLARATORY RELIEF(S) – What a party who seeks a declaratory relief must show:

ACTION – LOCUS STANDI – Position of law on locus standi

ACTION – LOCUS STANDI – Position of law on locus standi

ACTION – LOCUS STANDI – Principles of law as regards locus standi and when a party will be held to have the locus standi to institute an action

ACTION – LOCUS STANDI – What a party must show to establish locus standi

ACTION – LOCUS STANDI – What a party must show to establish locus standi

ACTION – LOCUS STANDI – Whether a member of a voluntary organization can sue the organization regarding whether its decisions or actions on its internal affairs are ultra vires

ACTION – NECESSARY PARTY(IES) – Who is a necessary party

ACTION – NON-JOINDER OF PARTY(IES) – Exception to the rule that non-joinder of a necessary party to an action may not vitiate such action

ACTION – ORIGINATING SUMMON(S) – When to adopt the originating summons procedure for the commencement of an action

ACTION – ORIGINATING SUMMON(S) – Whether Order 3 Rule 8 of the Rivers State High Court (Civil Procedure) Rules, 2010 mandates an applicant to file a verifying affidavit alongside an originating summons

ACTION – PARTY(IES) TO AN ACTION – Who is a mandatory party and effect of failure to join a mandatory party in an action:

ACTION – PLEADINGS – Whether a party is only required to plead facts and not evidence

ACTION – PROPER PARTIES – Whether proper parties must be before the Court for it to be competent to adjudicate on a matter:

ACTION – STATUTE BARRED ACTION – How to determine whether an action is statute barred

ACTION – STATUTE BARRED ACTION – Meaning, nature and purpose of statute bar; effect where an action is statute barred

APPEAL – APPEAL AGAINST DECISION/FINDING OF COURT – Whether an appeal against the decision of a Court must be against the ratio decidendi and not the obiter dicta

APPEAL – APPEAL TO THE SUPREME COURT – Attitude of the Supreme Court when an appeal appears to be defective

APPEAL – APPEAL TO THE SUPREME COURT – Statutory provision as regards time within which to appeal to the Supreme Court; effect of failure to appeal within time

APPEAL – ARGUMENT ON APPEAL – Whether arguments on appeal must flow from/relate to the ratio decidendi of the decision appealed against

APPEAL – EXTENSION/ENLARGEMENT OF TIME TO APPEAL – Conditions to be satisfied by an applicant seeking extension of time to appeal and whether the conditions must co-exist

APPEAL – EXTENSION/ENLARGEMENT OF TIME TO APPEAL – Conditions to be satisfied by an applicant seeking extension of time to appeal and whether the conditions must co-exist; exception(s) to same

APPEAL – EXTENSION/ENLARGEMENT OF TIME TO APPEAL – How to determine whether a ground of appeal shows good cause why an appeal should be heard

APPEAL – EXTENSION/ENLARGEMENT OF TIME TO APPEAL – Principles guiding the grant of an application for extension of time within which to appeal

APPEAL – EXTENSION/ENLARGEMENT OF TIME TO APPEAL – Whether a fresh application for extension of time to seek leave to appeal and leave to appeal can be made after it had been earlier struck out

APPEAL – EXTENSION/ENLARGEMENT OF TIME TO APPEAL – Whether mistake of counsel qualify as special circumstance to justify the grant of extension of time to appeal

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Whether leave of Court must first be sought and obtained before fresh point can be raised on appeal; effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Whether leave of Court must first be sought and obtained before fresh point can be raised on appeal; effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – FRESH POINT(S) ON APPEAL – Whether leave of Court must first be sought and obtained before fresh point can be raised on appeal; effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of a ground of appeal from which no issue for determination has been formulated or argument canvassed

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – How to determine whether a ground of appeal is one of law, facts or mixed law and facts

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Instance where grounds appeal will be held to be of fact or mixed law and fact; whether leave of Court is required to appeal against same and effect of failure

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – What counsel should do when unsure as to whether a ground of appeal is one of facts or of mixed law and facts

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – When a ground of appeal will be held to have arisen from the ratio decidendi of the judgment appealed against and same competent

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether a ground of appeal is classified simply by the name given to it by parties; effect of failure to seek and obtain leave of Court to appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether a ground of appeal which raises the issue of jurisdiction must relate or flow from the decision against which the appeal lies

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether an application challenging the competence of a ground of appeal must be determined first

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether ground(s) of appeal must arise from the judgment appealed against; effect of failure

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether leave of court is required to file an appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact and effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether leave of court is required to file an appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact and effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL – Whether the leave of court is required where an appeal is hinged on grounds of law alone before an appeal can be filed

APPEAL – GROUND(S) OF APPEAL- Whether leave of court is required to file an appeal on grounds of mixed law and fact and effect of failure thereof

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the Supreme Court to interference with concurrent finding(s) of fact(s) of Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Attitude of the appellate Court to concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts:

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts:

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Instances where the Supreme Court will not interfere with concurrent findings of fact(s) made by Lower Courts:

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH CONCURRENT FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Onus on an appellant appealing against concurrent findings of Lower Courts

APPEAL – INTERFERENCE WITH FINDING(S) OF FACT(S) – Whether an Appellate Court will interfere with the decision of a trial Court where the judgment of the court is right but the reasons are wrong

APPEAL – INTERLOCUTORY APPEAL – Time limit for filing an interlocutory appeal to the Supreme Court and effect of an interlocutory appeal to the Supreme Court filed out of time:

APPEAL – ISSUE(S) FOR DETERMINATION – Effect of issue(s) for determination not distilled from or related to ground(s) of appeal to succeed

APPEAL – ISSUE(S) FOR DETERMINATION – Effect of issue(s) for determination not distilled from or related to ground(s) of appeal

APPEAL – ISSUE(S) FOR DETERMINATION – Essence of relating issues for determination to grounds of appeal

APPEAL – ISSUE(S) FOR DETERMINATION – Whether issue(s) for determination must flow from a ground of appeal relating to the ratio of the decision appealed against; effect of failure

APPEAL – LEAVE OF COURT/LEAVE TO APPEAL – Whether leave of Court is required to appeal on grounds of fact or mixed law and fact; effect of failure

APPEAL – LEAVE OF COURT/LEAVE TO APPEAL- Circumstances when leave of Court must be sought and obtained to file an appeal and effect of failure to obtain same

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of failure to effect personal service of a notice of appeal where required

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of failure to effect personal service of a notice of appeal where required

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Effect of failure to effect personal service of a notice of appeal where required

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Instances where a notice of appeal will be incompetent

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL – Whether a defective Notice of Appeal can be cured by amendment

APPEAL – NOTICE(S) OF APPEAL- Effect of failure to specify the part of the judgment being appealed against in a notice of appeal

APPEAL – PROLIFERATION OF ISSUES – The rule against proliferation of issues for determination

APPEAL – RECORD OF APPEAL – Evolvement of the law on duty of registrar, appellant and respondent in compilation and transmission of record of appeal to the Court of Appeal

APPEAL – RECORD OF APPEAL – Importance of the record of appeal and whether parties and the Court are bound by it; function of the record of proceedings

APPEAL – RECORD OF APPEAL – Principle of law on compilation and transmission of record of appeal to the Court of Appeal

APPEAL – RECORD OF APPEAL – Whether an appellate Court can act on an incomplete record

APPEAL – RECORD OF APPEAL – Whether parties and the Court are bound by the record of appeal

APPEAL – REPLY BRIEF – Purpose/function of a reply brief; when a reply brief will not be necessary:

APPEAL – UNAPPEALED FINDING(S)/DECISION(S) – Effect of unappealed finding(s)/decision(s) of court

APPEAL – UNAPPEALED FINDING(S)/DECISION(S) – Effect of unappealed finding(s)/decision(s) of court

APPEAL – UNAPPEALED FINDING(S)/DECISION(S) – Effect of unappealed finding(s)/decision(s) of court

APPEAL – UNAPPEALED FINDING(S)/DECISION(S) – Effect of unappealed finding(s)/decision(s) of court

ARBITRATION AND CONCILIATION – ARBITRAL AWARD – Whether every arbitration clause is deemed to contain a provision that the award is to be final and binding on parties

ARBITRATION AND CONCILIATION – ENFORCEMENT OF ARBITRAL AWARD – Instance(s) where an arbitral award should be summarily enforced by the trial Court

CASE LAW – JUDICIAL PRECEDENT/STARE DECISIS – What the doctrine of stare decisis entails

COMMERCIAL LAW – RATIFICATION – Meaning and effect of ratification

COMPANY LAW – DERIVATIVE ACTION – Instance(s) where an action will be held not to be a derivative action and as such no is leave required to institute same

COMPANY LAW – RULE IN FOSS V. HARBOTTLE – The rule in Foss Vs Harbottle and instance where same will be inapplicable; Effect of the Memorandum and Articles of Association of a company

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – BREACH OF CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION(S) – Rule against violation of one provision of the Constitution in a bid to remedy the alleged breach of another

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – BREACH OF RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Effect of breach of right to fair hearing

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – CONSTITUTION – Meaning of Constitution and the evolution of constitutionalism

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – CONSTITUTIONAL VALIDITY OF LEGISLATION – Constitutional validity of Sections 391-395 of the Penal Code Law, FCT creating the offence of criminal defamation

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – CONSTITUTIONAL VALIDITY OF LEGISLATION – Whether Section 12(1) and (2) of the Local Government Law of Enugu State granting power to the Governor of Enugu State to remove democratically-elected Chairmen of Local Government Councils and replace them with caretaker committees is inconsistent with Section 7 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – ENFORCEMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHT(S) – Proper Court with jurisdiction to entertain any suit for enforcement of fundamental rights

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – ENFORCEMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHT(S) – Proper Court with jurisdiction to entertain any suit for enforcement of fundamental rights and instance where the Federal High Court will be held to have jurisdiction to entertain same

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – ENFORCEMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHT(S) – Whether the enforcement of fundamental right must be the main claim in an application brought under the Fundamental Rights Enforcement Rules

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR – Position of the law where a Governor of a State holds another executive office/paid employment during his tenure of office

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR – Whether Section 183 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 (as amended) applies only to the Governor of a State and to no other person/body/political party

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR – Whether the holder of the office of the Governor of a State can hold any other executive office/paid employment in any capacity during his tenure in office

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Attribute of the principle of fair hearing; whether a party must be given a hearing before a decision is taken against him

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Essential elements of fair hearing:

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Principle of fair hearing in relation to the rule of audi alteram partem

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Statutory provision as regards the right to fair hearing

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Whether a party who will be affected by the result of a trial must be given opportunity of being heard:

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FAIR HEARING – Whether the right to fair hearing can be waived or be statutorily taken away

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION – Whether a charge for the offence of criminal defamation as contained in a First Information Report brought under Sections 391-395 of the Penal Code Law, Abuja constitutes a violation of the constitutionally guaranteed right to freedom of expression

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – SEPARATION OF POWERS – Principle of separation of powers

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION – Nature and effect of the supremacy of the Constitution

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION – Statutory Provision as regards the supremacy of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria:

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – THE RULE OF NATURAL JUSTICE – What the rule of audi alteram partem postulates

CONTRACT – FORMATION OF CONTRACT – Meaning of contract: what distinguishes contractual obligations from other legal obligations

CONTRACT – INVITATION TO TREAT – What is an invitation to treat; whether same constitutes an offer or a contract enforceable by an order of specific performance

CONTRACT – SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE – Condition that must exist before an order of specific performance can be made

CONTRACT – VALIDITY OF CONTRACT – Essential elements of a valid contract

COURT – COMPETENCE OF COURT – What determines the competence of a Court to exercise jurisdiction

COURT – COURT OF APPEAL – Duty of the Court of Appeal as a penultimate Court to consider all issues placed before it on the merit

COURT – DISCRETION OF COURT – What a party applying to the court to exercise its discretionary power in his favour must do in order

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Duty of court in interpreting a statute

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Duty of Court in the interpretation of relevant laws or statutes

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Duty of court to consider all the possible defences open to an accused person

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Whether a court of law has the legal duty to confine itself only to authorities cited by the parties

COURT – DUTY OF COURT – Whether a Court of law has the legal duty to confine itself only to authorities cited by the parties; exception(s) thereto

COURT – DUTY OF JUDGE – Duty of a Judge to be impartial

COURT – JURISDICTION – Basis of exercise of jurisdiction of Court

COURT – JURISDICTION – Effect where a court lacks jurisdiction over a matter:

COURT – JURISDICTION – Guidelines for determining whether a Court has jurisdiction where the Federal Government or its agencies is a party

COURT – JURISDICTION – Importance of jurisdiction of Court; what determines whether a court has jurisdiction

COURT – JURISDICTION – Importance of jurisdiction:

COURT – JURISDICTION – Importance of jurisdiction; effect where a Court lacks jurisdiction over a matter

COURT – JURISDICTION – Meaning and importance of jurisdiction:

COURT – JURISDICTION – Nature of jurisdiction and effect of a Court lacking same

COURT – JURISDICTION – What confers jurisdiction on a Court:

COURT – JURISDICTION – Whether Court can exceed its limits where a law that confers jurisdiction on it limits it to the determination of specific questions

COURT – JURISDICTION – Whether Court has jurisdiction where a case within its jurisdiction is predicated on a primary issue that is not within its jurisdiction:

COURT – POWER OF COURT – Extent and scope of judicial powers vested in the Courts by virtue of Section 6(6) of the Constitution

COURT – POWER OF COURT – Instance where the Supreme Court can exercise its powers under Section 22 of the Supreme Court Act

COURT – POWER OF COURT – Whether the Court of Appeal and other subordinate courts have the power to sit on appeal over the judgment of the Supreme Court

COURT – RAISING ISSUE(S) SUO MOTU – Instance(s) where a Court raising an issue suo motu and deciding it without hearing parties will not amount to a miscarriage of justice

COURT – RAISING ISSUE(S) SUO MOTU – Whether a Court can raise an issue suo motu and determine it without hearing parties

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – AMENDMENT OF CHARGE – Effect of failure to call on the accused person to plead to an amended charge:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – AMENDMENT OF CHARGE – Effect of failure to call on the accused person to plead to an amended charge:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – AMENDMENT OF CHARGE – Position of the law where a Court amends a charge suo motu without reference to counsel and without taking a fresh plea of the accused person:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – ARRAIGNMENT/TAKING OF PLEA – Options open to an accused person upon his arraignment before the Court:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CHARGE(S) – Duty of Court where an accused is arraigned on a defective charge:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CHARGE(S) – When is the appropriate time to complain or object to a charge

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CHARGE(S) – Whether a charge can be substituted at any time; condition(s) for a charge to be validly substituted

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CHARGE(S) – Whether an incompetent charge can be substituted

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CHARGE(S) – Whether filing a charge pursuant to a wrong law renders the charge incompetent

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONVICTION FOR LESSER OFFENCE – Whether a Court can convict an accused person of a lesser offence with which he was not charged

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CONVICTION – Instance where a court will be held to have rightly convicted an accused person on his plea of guilt and other exhibits tendered

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CRIMINAL LIABILITY/RESPONSIBILITY – When an accused person would be absolved of criminal liability

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CRIMINAL PROSECUTION – Purpose of criminal law; how conviction for a crime is obtained

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CRIMINAL PROSECUTION – Whether a First Information Report upon which an accused was charged for the offence of criminal defamation can be declared unconstitutional and same quashed at the arraignment stage:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CRIMINAL TRIAL/PROCEEDINGS – Effect of the absence of an accused person at the address stage of a criminal trial

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CRIMINAL TRIAL/PROCEEDINGS – Effect of the absence of an accused person at the address stage of a criminal trial

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CRIMINAL TRIAL/PROCEEDINGS – Effect of the absence of an accused person at the address stage of a criminal trial

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – CRIMINAL TRIAL/PROCEEDINGS – Position of the law on the validity of a plea of guilt by an accused person and the consequence of same in a criminal trial and the validity of the arraignment of an accused person in the light of the absence of an interpreter during a criminal trial

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Conditions that must be met for the defence of accident to avail an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Conditions that must be met for the defence of accident to avail an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Meaning of accident; duty of prosecution to disprove the defence of accident when raised by accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Meaning of accident

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – When the defence of accident should be raised

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – When the defence of accident should be raised

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Whether an accused person can raise the defence of accident for the unintended result of a deliberate act

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Whether an accused person can raise the defence of accident for the unintended result of a deliberate act

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Whether an accused person can raise the defence of accident for the unintended result of a deliberate act

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Whether an accused person can raise the defence of accident for the unintended result of a deliberate act

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF ACCIDENT – Whether an accused person can raise the defence of accident for the unintended result of a deliberate act

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF INSANITY – Elements to be proved to establish the defence of insanity

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF INSANITY – Guiding principles in establishing insanity

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE OF SELF-DEFENCE/PROVOCATION – Whether the defence of provocation and self-defence are mutually exclusive

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE(S) OF ACCUSED PERSON(S) – Duty of an appellant to identify the facts or evidence on the record that establishes his defence

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE(S) OF ACCUSED PERSON(S) – Statutory provisions with respect to the defences of accident, self-defence and provocation; when the defences of accident, self-defence and provocation will not avail an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE(S) OF ACCUSED PERSON(S) – Whether the defences of provocation, self defence and accident are mutually exclusive and cannot go together

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE(S) OF ACCUSED PERSON(S) – Whether an appellate court can consider the defences available to an accused person where a trial court failed to do so

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE/PLEA OF ALIBI – Circumstances where the defence of alibi would not avail an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE/PLEA OF ALIBI – Duty of the prosecution to investigate the plea of alibi raised by an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE/PLEA OF ALIBI – Duty on an accused person to raise the defence of alibi timeously and to give particulars of his whereabout at the time the offence was committed and effect of failure; instance when the defence of Alibi will not avail the accused

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE/PLEA OF ALIBI – Duty on an accused person to raise the defence of alibi timeously and to give particulars of his whereabout at the time the offence was committed; effect of failure

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE/PLEA OF ALIBI – Duty on an accused person to raise the defence of alibi timeously and to give particulars of his whereabout at the time the offence was committed

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE/PLEA OF ALIBI – Meaning of alibi

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – DEFENCE/PLEA OF ALIBI – Position of the law on the defence of alibi

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – GUILT OF AN ACCUSED PERSON – How to establish/prove the guilt of an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – GUILT OF AN ACCUSED PERSON – How to establish/prove the guilt of an accused person:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – GUILT OF AN ACCUSED PERSON – How to establish/prove the guilt of an accused person

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Circumstances where an identification parade will not be necessary

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – IDENTIFICATION PARADE – Principles of law as regards identification parade

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – INTENTION – Circumstance(s) when an accused will be held to have intentionally caused the death of the deceased

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – INTENTION – Circumstance(s) when an accused will be held to have intentionally caused the death of the deceased

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – INTENTION – Circumstance(s) when an accused will be held to have intentionally caused the death of the deceased

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – INTENTION – How intention is inferred in murder cases

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – INTENTION – How intention is inferred in murder cases

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – INTENTION – Whether in law a person is taken to have intended the natural consequence of his action

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – INTENTION – Whether in law a person is taken to have intended the natural consequence of his action

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – INTENTION – Whether in law a person is taken to have intended the natural consequence of his action; whether intention can be inferred from circumstantial facts/evidence

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – NO CASE SUBMISSION – Meaning of no case submission

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – NO CASE SUBMISSION – Whether where an accused person has been discharged pursuant to a successful ruling on a no case submission of the substantive or main offence, the Court can proceed to convict on the ancillary offence:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF ARMED ROBBERY – Ingredients of the offence of armed robbery; standard of proof required of the prosecution

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CULPABLE HOMICIDE PUNISHABLE WITH DEATH – Ingredients the prosecution must prove to establish the offence of culpable homicide punishable with death

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CULPABLE HOMICIDE PUNISHABLE WITH DEATH – Whether an accused person can be convicted for the offence of culpable homicide punishable with death where the prosecution failed to establish intention to cause the death of the deceased

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CULPABLE HOMICIDE PUNISHABLE WITH DEATH – Ingredients the prosecution must prove to establish the offence of culpable homicide punishable with death

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CULPABLE HOMICIDE PUNISHABLE WITH DEATH – Whether an accused person can be convicted for the offence of culpable homicide punishable with death where the prosecution failed to establish intention to cause the death of the deceased

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CULPABLE HOMICIDE PUNISHABLE WITH DEATH – Whether an accused person can be convicted for the offence of culpable homicide punishable with death where the prosecution failed to establish intention to cause the death of the deceased

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF CULPABLE HOMICIDE PUNISHABLE WITH DEATH – Whether a collective proof of the three ingredients is required to secure conviction for the offence of culpable homicide punishable with death

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MANSLAUGHTER – What constitutes the offence of manslaughter

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential elements of the offence of murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Ingredients of the offence of murder; Ways of proving the offence of murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Ingredients of the offence of murder; Ways of proving the offence of murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Ingredients of the offence of murder; Ways of proving the offence of murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Statutory provision as regards the punishment for the offence of murder

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Whether the prosecution in a murder charge must establish the date of death

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF TERRORISM – Meaning and nature of the offence of terrorism

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF TERRORISM – Nature of international terrorism

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF TERRORISM – What constitutes giving support to acts of terrorism under Section 5(2) of the Terrorism (Prevention) Act, 2011 (as amended)

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF TERRORISM – What constitutes giving support to acts of terrorism under Section 5(2) of the Terrorism (Prevention) Act, 2011 (as amended)

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE(S) – Requirement of the law in bringing a charge under section 7 (1) (b) of the Advance Fee fraud and Other Related Offences Act; effect of failure:

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – PLEA OF GUILT – Whether an accused who pleads guilty to a criminal charge can be convicted summarily

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – SENTENCING – Whether a judge can only impose a sentence of death on an accused person who is found guilty of the offence of murder/culpable homicide punishable with death

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – SENTENCING – Whether a judge can only impose a sentence of death on an accused person who is found guilty of the offence of murder/culpable homicide punishable with death

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – SUMMARY TRIAL – Meaning and nature of summary trial

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – UNLAWFUL POSSESSION OF NARCOTIC DRUG – Statutory provisions with respect to the offence of unlawful dealing with marijuana and the punishment for same; ingredients of the offence of unlawful possession of Indian hemp

CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – UNLAWFUL POSSESSION OF NARCOTIC DRUGAB – Statutory provisions with respect to the offence of unlawful dealing with marijuana and the punishment for same; ingredients of the offence of unlawful possession of Indian hemp

DAMAGES – SPECIAL DAMAGES – Whether a claim for special damages must be specifically pleaded and strictly proved

ELECTION PETITION – ELECTION PETITION PROCEEDINGS – Whether the principle of agency applies where personal allegations are made against agent of a political party in an election petition:

ELECTION PETITION – GROUNDS FOR CHALLENGING AN ELECTION – Whether a petitioner can challenge an election on grounds of non-compliance with electoral regulations and guidelines

ELECTION PETITION – JOINDER OF PARTY(IES) – Position of the law as regards the effect of non-joinder of persons/parties against whom allegations were made in an election petition:

ELECTION PETITION – JURISDICTION OF ELECTION PETITION TRIBUNAL – Jurisdiction of the Governorship Election Tribunal as provided by the Constitution and whether it can act outside its scope:

ELECTION PETITION – PLEADINGS – Effect of variance between pleadings admitting sponsorship and ground alleging non-sponsorship in an election petition

ELECTORAL ATTERS – QUALIFICATION/DISQUALIFICATION – Requirement of the law where there is allegation of falsification of educational certificate

ELECTORAL MATTERS – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proof required where there is an allegation of falsification of educational certificates; Effect of failure to discharge same

ELECTORAL MATTERS – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – On whom lie the onus of proving forgery of certificate

ELECTORAL MATTERS – JURISDICTION – Whether the court has jurisdiction to interfere with matters which concern the running of the internal affairs of political parties

ELECTORAL MATTERS – NOMINATION AND SPONSORSHIP OF CANDIDATE – What constitutes act of sponsorship of a candidate for an election by a political party and who takes the decision to sponsor

ELECTORAL MATTERS – NOMINATION AND SPONSORSHIP OF CANDIDATE – Whether the Electoral Act requires that letter/form forwarding name(s) of candidate(s) to be sponsored by a political party to INEC must be signed by the National Chairman and National Secretary of the party

ELECTORAL MATTERS – PARTY CONSTITUTION – Whether political parties as well as its members are bound by the party Constitution/guidelines

ELECTORAL MATTERS – PARTY CONSTITUTION – Whether political parties as well as its members are bound by the party Constitution/guidelines

ELECTORAL MATTERS – PRE-ELECTION MATTERS – What pre-election matters entail:

ELECTORAL MATTERS – PRE-ELECTION MATTERS – Instance(s) when a matter will be held not to be a pre-election matter

ELECTORAL MATTERS – PRE-ELECTION MATTERS – Meaning of pre-election matters

ELECTORAL MATTERS – PRE-ELECTION MATTERS – Statutory definition of the phrase “pre-election matter”

ELECTORAL MATTERS – QUALIFICATION/DISQUALIFICATION – Effect where the evidence of a party asserting falsification of educational certificate is at variance with his pleadings

ELECTORAL MATTERS – QUALIFICATION/DISQUALIFICATION – When is a candidate qualified for election into the office of a Governor of a State

ELECTORAL MATTERS – QUALIFICATION/DISQUALIFICATION – When is a candidate qualified for election into the office of a Governor of a State:

ELECTORAL MATTERS – QUALIFICATION/DISQUALIFICATION – Whether submission or presentation of certificate is the requirement of Section 177(d) of the Constitution as regards the gubernatorial screening process

EVIDENCE – AFFIDAVIT EVIDENCE – Effect of paragraph of affidavit which offends the provisions of the Evidence Act

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/ONUS OF PROOF – Burden on an arresting authority to prove the legality of the arrest and detention of an applicant in an action for enforcement of fundamental rights and when same will be held not to have been proved:

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/ONUS OF PROOF – How a trial Court determines whether the legal duty imposed on the prosecution has been duly discharged

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proof in a charge of murder

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proof in criminal cases; whether doubt in the case of the prosecution should be resolved in favour of the accused

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proof in criminal cases; what does proof beyond reasonable doubt mean

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proof in an action for declaration of title to land; whether a plaintiff can rely on the weakness of defence to prove his case

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proof in criminal cases and whether it shifts; when burden of proof will shift

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden and standard of proving the defence of insanity

EVIDENCE – BURDEN OF PROOF/STANDARD OF PROOF – Burden of proof and standard of proof in criminal cases

EVIDENCE – CAUSE OF DEATH – Whether the prosecution in a murder case must prove beyond reasonable doubt, a link between act of accused person and the resulting death

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Conditions to be satisfied before a confession can be used in convicting an accused person

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Duty of an accused person who retracted his confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Effect of an inducement, threat or promise on a confessional statement; Conditions to be satisfied for an inducement, threat or promise to make a confessional statement irrelevant and inadmissible

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Meaning of a confession and when a statement will be held not to be confessional

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Position of the law where an accused gives oral evidence which is inconsistent with or contradicts the contents of his statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Position of the law where the confessional statement of an accused person is voluntary and true but contradicts his evidence in Court

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – What is expected of a trial judge where an accused person makes two statements voluntarily

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – When Court can rely on a confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a confessional statement becomes inadmissible because an accused person retracted or denied making it

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a Court can convict on a confessional statement; tests for determining the truth or weight to attach to a confessional statement

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict solely on the confessional statement of an accused person

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict solely on the confessional statement of an accused person

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict solely on the confessional statement of an accused person

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a court can convict solely on the confessional statement of an accused person

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether a retracted confessional statement requires corroboration before Court can convict on same

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether an accused can challenge on appeal the voluntariness of his confession which was admitted after a trial within trial

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether an accused person can be convicted based on his confession; Whether it is desirable to have some other evidence other than the confession

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether confession is the best form of evidence in a criminal trial

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether confession is the best form of evidence in a criminal trial

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether confession is the best form of evidence in a criminal trial

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether confession is the best evidence in criminal law; criteria for admissibility of same

EVIDENCE – CONFESSIONAL STATEMENT – Whether conviction can be set aside solely because it was based entirely on a retracted confession

EVIDENCE – CONTRADICTION IN EVIDENCE – Attitude of Court to contradiction in the statement of an accused to the police and his testimony in Court

EVIDENCE – CONTRADICTION IN EVIDENCE – Conditions to be satisfied before conflict or contradiction in the evidence of prosecution witness can be said to be fatal to its case

EVIDENCE – CONTRADICTION IN EVIDENCE – Conditions to be satisfied before conflict or contradiction in the evidence of prosecution witness can be said to be fatal to its case

EVIDENCE – CONTRADICTION IN EVIDENCE – Duty of court where there are contradictions in the evidence of witness(es)

EVIDENCE – CONTRADICTION IN EVIDENCE – Instance of non-material contradiction

EVIDENCE – CONTRADICTION IN EVIDENCE – Instance of non-material contradiction

EVIDENCE – CONTRADICTION IN EVIDENCE – Position of the law as regards contradictions in evidence

EVIDENCE – CROSS-EXAMINATION – Effect of evidence that is not denied/challenged/discredited under cross-examination

EVIDENCE – CROSS-EXAMINATION – Effect of evidence that is not denied/challenged/discredited under cross-examination

EVIDENCE – DYING DECLARATION – What constitutes a dying declaration; requirements of the law in establishing same

EVIDENCE – DYING DECLARATION – What constitutes a dying declaration; requirements of the law in establishing same

EVIDENCE – EVALUATION OF EVIDENCE – Whether evaluation of evidence and ascription of probative value is a primary function of the trial Court; duty of the Court of Appeal as it relates to same

EVIDENCE – EVALUATION OF EVIDENCE – Whether evaluation of evidence and ascription of probative value is a primary function of the trial Court; duty of the Court of Appeal as it relates to same

EVIDENCE – EVIDENCE OF AN EYE WITNESS – Effect of failure to call an eye witness to testify

EVIDENCE – EVIDENCE OF AN EYE WITNESS – Effect of failure to call an eye witness to testify

EVIDENCE – EXPERT OPINION/EVIDENCE – Position of the law with regard to expert opinion/evidence

EVIDENCE – HEARSAY EVIDENCE – Effect where a statement substantially evinces truth and facts though with dots of hearsay

EVIDENCE – HEARSAY EVIDENCE – When evidence of a witness will/will not amount to hearsay evidence

EVIDENCE – HEARSAY EVIDENCE – Whether hearsay evidence is admissible; meaning and nature of an hearsay evidence

EVIDENCE – IDENTIFICATION EVIDENCE – Duty of Court whenever the case against an accused depends wholly or substantially on the correctness of the identification of the accused

EVIDENCE – IDENTIFICATION EVIDENCE – Whether the recognition and visual spontaneous evidence of identification is more reliable than an identification parade

EVIDENCE – IDENTIFICATION OF DECEASED BODY – Circumstance when a separate witness will not be necessary for the identification of a deceased’s body

EVIDENCE – ILLITERATE JURAT – Whether the Illiterates Protection Law apply to statements recorded in criminal cases by the police

EVIDENCE – INCONSISTENCY RULE – Whether the inconsistency rule applies to a retracted confessional statement of an accused person

EVIDENCE – INCONSISTENCY RULE – Whether the inconsistency rule applies to a retracted confessional statement of an accused person

EVIDENCE – JUDICIAL NOTICE – Whether a Court has the power to take judicial notice of all the laws, enactments, and any subsidiary legislations made there under in any part of Nigeria

EVIDENCE – MEDICAL EVIDENCE – Whether it is mandatory for the maker of a medical report to be present in Court to give evidence for the report to be admissible

EVIDENCE – MEDICAL EVIDENCE – Whether medical evidence is always essential to prove cause of death of the deceased

EVIDENCE – ORAL EVIDENCE – When oral evidence will constitute direct evidence

EVIDENCE – PROOF BEYOND REASONABLE DOUBT – The requirement of the law as regard proof beyond reasonable doubt

EVIDENCE – PROOF BEYOND REASONABLE DOUBT – The requirement of the law as regard proof beyond reasonable doubt

EVIDENCE – PROOF OF TITLE TO LAND – Ways by which ownership/title to land may be proved; whether a plaintiff needs to prove all the five ways

EVIDENCE – PROOF – Methods of proof

EVIDENCE – TAINTED WITNESS – Whether the law disqualifies blood relation or close relatives of a deceased person from testifying for the prosecution in a murder trial

EVIDENCE – TENDERING OF WEAPON OF CRIME – Whether weapon of offence must be tendered before the guilt of an accused can be established

GARNISHEE PROCEEDINGS – Whether a judgment debtor can bring an application for stay of execution of a Garnishee Order Absolute pending an appeal

GOVERNMENT – ARMS OF GOVERNMENT – The three arms of government and their roles

GOVERNMENT – DUTY OF GOVERNMENT – Whether religion is a business or purpose any Government in Nigeria should engage itself in

GOVERNMENT – LOCAL GOVERNMENT – Duty of the Governor to preserve the existence of a democratically elected Local Government Councils

GOVERNMENT – LOCAL GOVERNMENT – Statutory provisions as to the tenure of office of a Local Government Council Chairman in Enugu State; whether the Governor of the State can extend the said tenure

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – LITERAL RULE OF INTERPRETATION – Fundamental principles of interpretation of statutes where the words used are clear and unambiguous

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – RULES OF INTERPRETATION OF CONSTITUTION – Approach Courts adopt in finding solutions to Constitutional questions in the course of interpretation

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – RULES OF INTERPRETATION OF CONSTITUTION – Rules governing the interpretation of Constitutional provisions

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – RULES OF INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – Guiding principles in interpretation of statutes or the Constitution

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – RULES OF INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – Position of the law where a particular word or phrase is defined in a statute

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – RULES OF INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – Position of the law where a particular word or phrase is defined in a statute

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – SECTION 183 OF THE 1999 CONSTITUTION – Interpretation of Section 183 of the 1999 Constitution as to whether it restrains a person not holding the office of Governor of a State from holding any other executive office/paid employment

INTERPRETATION OF STATUTE – SECTION 183 OF THE 1999 CONSTITUTION – Interpretation of Section 183 of the 1999 Constitution as to whether it restrains a person not holding the office of Governor of a State from holding any other executive office/paid employment

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF COST- Principle guiding an award of costs:

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF INTEREST- Instance where an appellate court will be held to have wrongly interfered with an award of interest made by a lower court

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF INTEREST- Instance where an award of interest will be made

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF INTEREST- Legal basis for the award of interest

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF INTEREST- The principles governing the award of interests

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – AWARD OF INTEREST- Where the Court derives its power to award interest

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – CONCURRING JUDGMENT – Whether a concurring judgment forms part of the lead judgment

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – DECLARATORY JUDGMENT/ORDER – Whether a declaratory judgment is complete in itself:

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – DELIVERY OF JUDGMENT – Effect of a judgment delivered by a panel where one of them was not present at the hearing of the case

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ERROR/MISTAKE IN JUDGMENT – Whether every error/mistake/slip in a judgment will result in a judgment being set aside

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ERROR/MISTAKE IN JUDGMENT – Whether every error/mistake/slip in a judgment will result in a judgment being set aside

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ERROR/MISTAKE IN JUDGMENT – Whether every error/mistake in a judgment will result in a judgment being set aside; circumstance where error/mistake in a judgment will result in a judgment being set aside

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ERROR/MISTAKE IN JUDGMENT – Whether every error/mistake in a judgment will result in a judgment being set aside; condition for error/mistake to ground the setting aside of a judgment and duty of a party to demonstrate that a miscarriage of justice was occasioned

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – FUNCTUS OFFICIO – Whether a Court/Court of co-ordinate jurisdiction has the competence to entertain a matter that was dismissed by it or a Court of co-ordinate jurisdiction

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – JUDGMENT OF COURT – Binding effect of a decision of Court not appealed against; effect of the dismissal of a case

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – JUDGMENT OF COURT – Whether a judgment/order of court remains valid until set aside

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ORDER OF COURT – Proper order a Court would make where there is an incomplete record before it

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ORDER OF COURT – Proper order a Court would make where there is an incomplete record before it

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ORDER OF COURT – Whether the court can make an order against or in favour of a person who is not a party to a suit

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ORDER OF DISMISSAL – Effect of an order of dismissal

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – ORDER OF STRIKING OUT – Instances where an order of striking out would be made

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – PERVERSE DECISION – Duty of a party who complains that the judgment of a lower Court is perverse

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – STAY OF EXECUTION OF JUDGMENT – Whether the Court of Appeal can rightly order a stay of execution of a garnishee order absolute pending the determination of an appeal

JUDGMENT AND ORDER – WRITING OF JUDGMENT – When failure of a trial Judge to state the point(s) or issue(s) for determination in the judgment as provided for in Section 308 of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act will not render the judgment a nullity

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE COURT OF APPEAL – Statutory provision as to the exclusive appellate jurisdiction of the Court of Appeal

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE COURT OF APPEAL – Statutory provision as to the exclusive appellate jurisdiction of the Court of Appeal

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE FEDERAL HIGH COURT – What determines the jurisdiction of the Federal High Court to entertain a matter

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Whether the jurisdiction of the Federal High Court extends to the tort of negligence

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Whether the Federal High Court has jurisdiction to determine matters brought under the Fatal Accident Law CAP 43 Laws of Northern Nigeria 1963, applicable to Plateau State

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Whether the Federal High Court has jurisdiction to determine matters brought under the Fatal Accident Law CAP 43 Laws of Northern Nigeria 1963, applicable to Plateau State

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Whether the Federal High Court has jurisdiction to entertain matters on enforcement of fundamental human rights involving an agency of the Federal Government:

JURISDICTION – JURISDICTION OF THE STATE/FEDERAL HIGH COURT – Whether the Federal and State High Court have concurrent jurisdiction to entertain matters on enforcement of fundamental rights

LAND LAW – CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY – Whether certificate of occupancy is conclusive evidence of title

LAND LAW – ROOT OF TITLE – Position of law where parties trace their root of title to one source

LAND LAW – ROOT OF TITLE – Whether a party who pleads and traces his root of title to a particular person or source must establish it; effect of failure thereof

LANDLORD AND TENANT – NOTICE TO QUIT – Effect of service of a writ of summons for repossession of a property on an irregular notice to quit

LANDLORD AND TENANT – NOTICE TO QUIT – Whether collection of rent from a tenant after service of notice to quit by the landlord amounts to a waiver of the notice to quit

LEGAL PRACTITIONER – DUTY OF COUNSEL – Duty of Counsel as a minister in the temple of justice and an officer of the Court:

LEGAL PRACTITIONER – LEGAL PRACTITIONERS DISCIPLINARY COMMITTEE – Instance(s) where the Chairman of the Legal Practitioners Committee will not disqualify himself from a disciplinary proceeding:

LEGAL PRACTITIONER – LEGAL PRACTITIONERS DISCIPLINARY COMMITTEE – Effect of variation in the composition of the Legal Practitioners Disciplinary Committee members present during and/or throughout the proceedings:

LEGISLATION – ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE ACT/LAW – Whether the Administration of Criminal Justice Act has a retrospective effect

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION OF ACTION – Position of the law where a plea of statute bar is raised at the trial of an action

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION PERIOD – Effect of an action brought outside a statutorily limited period

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION PERIOD – Effect of an action brought outside a statutorily limited period

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION PERIOD – Effect of an action brought outside a statutorily limited period

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION PERIOD – Effect of limitation law

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION PERIOD – When does time begin to run for the purpose of limitation law

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION PERIOD – When does time begin to run for the purpose of limitation law

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION PERIOD – Whether negotiation by parties can stop time from running

LIMITATION LAW – LIMITATION PERIOD – Whether negotiation by parties can stop time from running; whether letters written by one party to another can amount to negotiation for the purposes of shifting time of accrual of cause of action

LIMITATION LAW – STATUTE OF LIMITATION – Whether a party can rely on a case decided under the Public Officers Protection Ordinance as authority for exempting their claims from the operation of the Ebonyi State Limitation Law, 2009

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – Meaning and nature of the concept of “abuse of Court/judicial process”

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – Meaning of frivolous action and attitude of Court to same; power of Court to dismiss suits which are frivolous, vexatious or constitutes an abuse of Court process

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – What constitutes abuse of Court process

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – What constitutes abuse of Court process

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – What constitutes abuse of Court process

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ABUSE OF COURT/JUDICIAL PROCESS(ES) – What constitutes abuse of Court process:

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ACADEMIC OR HYPOTHETICAL QUESTION(S)/ISSUES/SUIT/EXERCISE – Meaning and nature of hypothetical/academic exercise/question/issue:

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ACADEMIC OR HYPOTHETICAL QUESTION(S)/ISSUES/SUIT/EXERCISE – Attitude of Courts to academic/hypothetical issues or questions

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – CONSISTENCY IN PRESENTATION OF A CASE – Whether a party must be consistent in stating and proving their case

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – FRONTLOADING – Rationale for frontloading processes; whether failure to comply with the rules for frontloading is a mere irregularity

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT (ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURE) RULES – Whether the Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules purport to confer jurisdiction on any Court:

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – HEARING – What hearing entails; when a hearing will be said to have been on the merits

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ISSUE OF JURISDICTION – Fundamental nature of the issue of jurisdiction; whether the issue of jurisdiction must first be determined by the Court once it is raised

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ISSUE OF JURISDICTION – When can the issue of jurisdiction be raised

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – ISSUE OF JURISDICTION – When can the issue of jurisdiction be raised; whether same must be determined first:

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – LEGAL RIGHT – Definition and characteristics of right/legal right

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Effect of raising a preliminary objection to the competence/hearing of an appeal

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Aim/purpose/essence of a preliminary objection; effect of same:

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Best procedure where the purpose of an objection is merely to challenge the competence of some of the grounds of Appeal and not the competence of the entire appeal

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Best procedure where the purpose of an objection is merely to challenge the competence of some of the grounds of Appeal and not the competence of the entire appeal

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Effect of the success of a preliminary objection to the hearing of an appeal

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Procedure which a respondent intending to raise a preliminary objection must follow; effect of non-compliance

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Purpose of a notice of preliminary objection; whether a preliminary objection can be used to attack one or more grounds of appeal

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Purpose of a notice of preliminary objection; whether a preliminary objection can be used to attack one or more grounds of appeal

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Whether a preliminary objection should be considered and determined first before dealing with the merits of an appeal

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Whether a preliminary objection should be considered and determined first before dealing with the merits of an appeal

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION – Whether a preliminary objection should be considered and determined first before dealing with the merits of an appeal

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – PRELIMINARY OBJECTION- Effect of ground(s) of objection in respect of which no argument(s) was/were proffered

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – SIGNING OF COURT PROCESS(ES) – Effect of an originating process signed by a law firm

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – SIGNING OF COURT PROCESS(ES) – Effect of an originating process signed by a law firm

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – SIGNING OF COURT PROCESS(ES) – Effect of an originating process signed by a law firm

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – SUBSTITUTED SERVICE – Instance where an ex parte order for substituted service will be set aside

TORT – DEFAMATION – Evolution of the law of criminal defamation and its abolition in some countries

TORT – TORT CLAIM – Definition of tort as a civil wrong; classifications of civil wrong:

TORT – TORT CLAIM – Nature and purpose of a tort claim; differences between a tort and a crime:

WORDS AND PHRASES – “NEGOTIATION” – Meaning of “negotiation”

WORDS AND PHRASES – “JURISDICTION” – Meaning of the word “jurisdiction”