CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE – OFFENCE OF MURDER – Essential ingredients that must be proved by the prosecution to ground a conviction for murder


“in a plethora of cases the essential ingredients of murder which must be established to secure a conviction are as follows:- a. That he deceased died. b. That the death of the deceased resulted from the act of the appellant, and c. That the said act of the appellant was intentional with knowledge that death or grievous bodily harm was its probable consequence. See Njoku v State (2013) 532 NSCQR 230 at 267; Amaremor v State (2014) All FWLR (pt. 736) 4-06 at 422; Ola v State (2014) All FWLR (pt. 752) 1648 at 1664; Igago v The State (1999) 14 NWLR (pt. 637) 1 at 20.” Per PETER-ODILI, JSC in AKPAKPAN v. STATE (2021-LCER-40459-SC) (Pp 12 – 12 Paras B – E)

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